Archive for August, 2012


Wednesday, August 15th, 2012


With over 200,000 new cases worldwide of malignant melanoma, the most virulent form of skin cancer, reported in 2008 according to Cancer Research UK statistics, limiting exposure to the sun is vitally important. But keeping track of our exposure, particularly on cloudy days, can be a difficult exercise. New technology developed at the University of Strathclyde makes things simpler by providing a visual warning of when to seek some shade or slap on some more sunscreen.
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The technology, which is being commercialized in wristband form by Swedish company Intellego Technologies, works using an acid-release agent that is sensitive to ultraviolet light, and a dye, which responds to pH levels in the indicator. As the risk of sunburn increases, the wristband changes in color from yellow to pink. As the acid-release agent is decomposed by sunlight, the wristband is able to change color quite quickly.

Intellego Technologies plans to have its UV dosimeter wristband available in time for the summer (northern hemisphere) of 2013, probably in the springtime.

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Source: University of Strathclyde

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Tuesday, August 14th, 2012

An article on how an Australian man using a vacuum cleaner solved an evolution blunder. Snoring may be a sign of other conditions

It began late in the 1970s. Colin Sullivan is a physician in the respiratory unit at Sydney’s Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Australia. There, he treats patients who have breathing problems. The most common complaint, by far, is snoring. Sullivan knows better than most medicos in his field that snoring is at times a sign of a more serious disorder known as sleep apnea. The disorder had been just identified only about ten years earlier.

Patients with sleep apnea experience a wierd nightly sensation that brings the body disturbingly close to death. Initially, the throat closes randomly throughout the night, cutting off the body’s air supply. This puts in motion a cascade of increasingly bad side effects. Like in a domino effect, the lack of air causes the oxygen levels in the blood to plummet and the blood pressure to rise markedly. The lips and skin begin going blue. Air may not come into the lungs for a minute or so. Also for some patients, the heart stops beating for maybe 10 seconds at a time.

Before long, the brain gets the urgent message that the body is choking. The brain jolts awake, and the body instinctively gasps for air. Yet as soon as the airway is clear, the brain immediately falls back to sleep. That’s when the cycle begins once again. It is all so quick that it can happen more than 20 times an hour, throughout the entire night, without the sleeper remembering it at all the next day. Someone lying next to him or her, however, can hear & or see this process taking place: When the rhythmic pattern of a snorer’s breathing pauses and then becomes a hard ghhack-ghhack-ghhack, it’s propably the body frantically clearing its airway.
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Sleep apnea was initially discovered when a group of American physicians noticed that some obese patients complained of extreme fatigue and would drift asleep unintentionally. With a literary flourish, they named the condition Pickwickian syndrome after a character who falls asleep standing up in Charles Dickens’s first novel, The Pickwick Papers. Doctors inadvertedly attributed the sleepiness to a combination of excess weight and abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. It was only later that science understood sleep apnea to be a common breathing disorder caused by the combined position of the tongue and tissues of the throat. It was then given the name of apnea, derived from the Greek word for breathless.

Sleep apnea was on the frontier of sleep medial research in the late 1970s. Sullivan had recently returned from a fellowship in Toronto, where he spent three years analysing  the breathing patterns of dogs while they slept. British bulldogs, pugs, and other breeds with pushed-in faces are the only animals besides humans that experience the condition of sleep apnea. The years spent working with dogs gave Sullivan an idea. Once back in Sydney, he devised a mask that fit over a dog’s snout. The mask continuously pumped in air from the surrounding room, increasing the air pressure in the throat and preventing it from closing up. Experiments with dogs suggested that the steady flow of air dramatically improved sleep. All Sullivan needed was a human to give it a go

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In June of 1980, he found one. A man entered the hospital with such a severe case of sleep apnea that Sullivan recommended an immediate drastic tracheotomy. This procedure, which consisted of making a hole in the throat to allow a person to breathe without using the nose or mouth, was one of the few approved treatments for sleep apnea at the time. It required a permanent, coin-size opening in the neck, however, and was quite painful.

The patient refused the tracheotomy. But he was prepared to volunteer as a test patient for Sullivan’s air-pressure machine. Sullivan built a test model that day. He grabbed the motor out of a vacuum cleaner and attached it to a number of plastic tubes. He then took a diving mask and coated the edges with a silicone sealant that prevented air from leaking out of it. Soon, he had a workable system that allowed him to pump air through the mask under controlled pressure. Sullivan found an empty room hospital room and set up equipment to monitor the patient’s breathing and brain patterns, which would tell him what stage of sleep the man was in. The patient was hooked up to the monitors, put on the mask, and fell asleep within seconds.

The man began experiencing sleep apnea within minutes. Sullivan then slowly started to increase the pressure in the air flowing through the mask and into the patient’s airway. Suddenly, the apnea ceased. The patient began breathing normally. As Sullivan watched in amazement, the patient instantly went into a deep REM sleep—a rare phenomenon suggesting that his brain had been starved of restorative sleep. Sullivan then slowly decreased the pressure of the air flowing through the mask. Apnea resulted once again. Sullivan rapidly went through several repetitive cycles of increasing and decreasing the pressure. Finding that with the machine’s controls alone, he could effectively turn the patient’s sleep apnea on and off at will

The machine performed  well. The next question was whether its benefits would last throughout the night. Sullivan left the settings on the machine at a level where the patient was totally free of sleep apnea. Then he waited. For about seven straight hours, the patient was in abnormally intense, deep sleep. When he woke up the next day, he told Sullivan that he felt awake and alert for the first time in years.

A study in 1994 found that about 10 percent of women and 25 percent of men have difficulties breathing whilst sleeping. These numbers climb as a person ages, so that as many as 1 out of 3 elderly men have at least a mild case of sleep apnea. All told, about 20 million Americans are believed to have the disorder.

Its cause could simply be the trade-off that the human body makes for having the ability to speak in a complex language. A short tour of fossils illustrates such a possibility. If you were to look at a Neanderthal’s mouth, you might deem that its descendants would have been the ones to survive over the long run, considering their jawbones were larger and stronger than our ours now. Plus, with extra room in their mouths, Neanderthals never experienced the pain of impacted wisdom teeth. Homo sapiens differed from Neanderthals by developing a flatter face, a smaller jawbone, and a tongue that descends deeper into the throat than in any other mammal. With this physical feature, humans were able to move beyond making simple grunts. Those first, complicated sounds uttered by Homo sapiens soon evolved into language Telephone service for Home and Business users

However the positioning of the tongue in the Homo sapiens mouth complicates the acts of eating, drinking, and breathing. Food could literally go down the wrong pipe, a biological problem unique to modern humans. Darwin noted “the strange fact that every particle of food and drink we swallow has to pass over the orifice of the trachea with some risk of falling into the lungs.” The longer tissues of the soft palate at the back of the throat made it possible for the airway to become blocked after a routine exhalation, which could start the cycle of sleep apnea. In the mid-1990s, researchers in Japan found that slight changes in the size and position of the pharynx at the back of the throat drastically increased the likelihood that someone would develop a breathing disorder such as sleep apnea during sleep. The shape of a person’s neck and jaw may also be a factor. A large neck, tongue, or tonsils, or a narrow airway often signal that a person will develop sleep apnea because of the increased chance that breathing will become blocked during the night.

Yet the physicians who first recognized sleep apnea were half right when they assumed that the disorder was a side effect of obesity. Sleep apnea is a flaw that is part of the blueprint of the human body, and excess fat often teases it out. The chances of developing sleep apnea go up with weight because the tissues in the throat become enlarged, making it more likely that they will obstruct the airway during sleep. For some patients, losing weight alone canstop the slep apnea. Other changes in behavior—like reducing alcohol intake, cutting back on smoking, sleeping on one’s side instead of on the back, or doing exercises or playing musical instruments that build up the muscles in the throat—may be beneficial.

Breathing masks like those manufactured by ResMed, the company Sullivan co-founded in 1989 after developing simpler prototypes of his machine, are the most common medical treatment for sleep apnea, but they aren’t for everyone. Some patients never adapt to the awkward sensation of sleeping with a mask on their face or never become comfortable with breathing in the cold air that is continuously pumped into their mouth throughout the night. In the long term, patients with mild sleep apnea wear the masks between 40 and 80 percent of the time, according to various studies. There is also a social stigma that complicates treatment. Some patients with sleep apnea decide not to use a continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP, machine because they are worried that it will make them less attractive to the person they are sharing a bed with & gives them the appearance of being on a life support system. In an online support group for patients with sleep apnea, a man wrote that he was “feeling like I am going to be Darth Vader if I have to wear one.” A woman wrote that her husband “fought it, cried, said he is defective, said he would prefer to put a gun to his head then wear one of those things.” Another wrote that “I’ve yelled that I feel like a freak to my husband way too many times this fall.”
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Oral dental devices are typically the next choice. These aren’t as effective as CPAP machines for severe sleep apnea, but they may be easier for some patients to use, especially those who have to travel frequently. One of the most popular looks like a sports mouthguard. It forces the lower jaw forward and slightly down to keep the airway open. Another device holds the tongue in place to prevent it from getting in the way. Surgery is the last option. One procedure, called an uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, consists of removing excess soft tissue from the back of the throat. Its long-term success rate is only about 50 percent, and it can lead to side effects such as difficulty in swallowing, an impaired sense of smell, and infection. It is also extremely painful. Few medications have been shown to help sleep apnea and may in fact make the problem worse. Sleeping pills and tranquilizers, for instance, can make the soft tissues in the throat sag and obstruct the airway more than they would otherwise.
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In 2000, four separate studies found conclusive evidence that sleep apnea was associated with increased rates of hypertension. Left untreated, patients with sleep apnea are at a greater risk of developing kidney disease or vision problems, or having a heart attack or stroke. Those studies helped convince some government insurance programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, and the British National Health Service to pay for a portion of the cost of each ResMed device, which can be several-thousand dollars if a patient were to buy it out of pocket. Slumber labs across the country now conduct overnight tests in which patients who are suspected to have sleep apnea are hooked up to equipment that monitors their heart rhythums, breathing patterns, and brain activity, as well as the number of times they wake up throughout the night and how often they move their limbs.

As scientists began to understand sleep apnea in more detail, they started to see it as the foundation for serious illnesses affecting the mind. In one study, researchers at UCLA conducted brain scans of patients with extensive histories of sleep apnea and compared them with the scans of control subjects who had normal sleep patterns. The investigations focused their inquiry on the mammillary bodies, two structures on the underside of the brain so named because they resemble small breasts. Mammillary bodies are thought to be an important part of the memory and have long been associated with common cases of amnesia. This memory center of the brain was 20 percent smaller in patients with sleep apnea. Had a doctor looked at a patient’s brain scan alone, it would have suggested severe cognitive impairment: A similar shrinkage in the size of the mammillary bodies is found in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or those who experienced memory loss as a result of alcoholism. It was the first indication that sleep apnea leaves a permanent scar beyond the daily difficulties of focus and attention that come with sleepiness.
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A recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association supported this conclusion. Kristine Yaffe, a professor of psychiatry at the University of California-San Francisco, led a study that recruited nearly 300 elderly women who were mentally and physically fit. The average age of the subjects in the study was a ripe 82. Each woman spent a night in a sleep lab, and Yaffe found that about 1 in every 3 met the standard for sleep apnea. Yaffe re-examined each woman five years later. The effects of age on the mind seemed to depend on the quality of sleep. Nearly half of the women with sleep apnea showed signs of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, compared with only a third of the women who slept normally. After controlling for factors such as age, race, and the use of medicines, Yaffe found that the women with sleep apnea were 85 percent more likely to show the first signs of memory loss. The frequent interruptions in sleep and the reduced oxygen availability to the brain may reduce the brain’s ability to form and protect long-term memory recall
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Sleep apnea and weight are not problems limited to the United States, a fact that hasn’t been lost on companies like ResMed. The spread of Western fast-food companies like McDonald’s, Kentucky Fried Chicken, and Pizza Hut to emerging countries such as China and India may be the greatest growth engine for ResMed. Simply put, more fat in the bodies of the world’s population equals a larger number of sleep apnea cases, creating a larger customer base for ResMed’s products. “Genetically you’re still engineered for a low-calorie, low-fat diet,” Kieran Gallahue, CEO of ResMed at the time I visited the company’s headquarters in 2010, told me. “That’s what your body has been optimized for over centuries. Boom, you introduce burgers, fries and fast food fads, and your body is not going to handle it well. One of the outcomes is going to be a skyrocketing in the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing.

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Sunday, August 12th, 2012


TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) — A vaccine made from brain cancer patients’ own tumor cells led to a nearly 50 percent improvement in survival times for those stricken with glioblastoma multiforme, the same malignancy that claimed the life of U.S. Sen. Edward Kennedy, a new study suggests.
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A phase 2 multicentre trial of about 40 patients with recurrent glioblastoma — an aggressive brain cancer that typically kills patients within 15 months of diagnosis — showed that the vaccine safely increased average survival to nearly 48 weeks, compared with about 33 weeks among patients who didn’t receive the treatment. The six-month survival rate was 93 percent for the vaccinated group, compared with 68 percent for 86 other glioblastoma patients, who were treated with other therapies.

“We’ve done a lot of things for this kind of tumor in the last 40 or 50 years, all variations on different chemotherapies that haven’t really panned out,” said Dr. Jonas Sheehan, director of neuro-oncology at the Penn State Cancer Institute, who was not involved in the study. “What we’ve known needed to happen for a while now is a revolution — a totally new way of approaching these tumors. This is an example of a totally new paradigm.”

The study is scheduled to be presented Tuesday at the annual meeting of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), in Miami.
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About a quarter of the 18,500 brain tumors diagnosed each year are glioblastomas, which are more common in men and typically occur between the ages of 50 and 70, according to the AANS. Kennedy died of the malignancy in 2009, 15 months after his diagnosis. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are among the standard treatment options.

The vaccine used in the trial, known as HSPPC-96, was created with tumor cells from patients who had undergone surgery to remove as much tumor as possible. The vaccine was then injected into their bodies to induce an immune response against the tumor, said lead investigator Dr. Andrew Parsa, vice chairman of neurological surgery at University of California, San Francisco. Side effects among participants were minimal.

“It’s the concept of chronic therapy, to turn this into a chronic disease like hypertension and diabetes,” said Parsa, who noted that no drug companies funded the study. “It’s the only therapy in the clinical realm that has a reasonable chance of doing this, because we can’t give patients chemotherapy [because of toxicity] for unlimited amounts of time.”
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Parsa said the vaccine’s impact, if validated with a randomized study in the near future, could be a “total game-changer.”

Added Sheehan: “The hope is that we’ll go from a survival of 15 months to a meaningful difference. We’re looking to go from 15 months to five years, a quantum leap forward.”

Because this study was to be presented at a medical meeting, the data and conclusions should be viewed as preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

More information

Visit the American Association of Neurological Surgeons for more on glioblastomas
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Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Monday, August 6th, 2012
CHICK WEED IN THE TREATMENT OF SKIN DISORDERSStellaria media, known as chickweed, grows wild throughout Europe and North America. This low-growing plant has pointed oval leaves and small white flowers. Scientific literature primarily focuses on controlling the growth of this plant as a weed, and no evidence indicates the plant is effective for medicinal uses, according to Consult with a qualified health care provider before beginning any herbal therapy.
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Skin Disorders

The primary traditional use of chickweed is as a topical treatment for skin disorders, often in a cream, according to Some people use it to treat eczema, a common skin condition involving scaling, red thickened patches of skin that can be very itchy. Chickweed preparations can be used to treat the red, itchy rash caused by contact with poison ivy and poison oak, and for healing insect stings and bites. Chickweed may be effective for treating these conditions because it contains relatively large amounts of vitamins, including the antioxidant vitamin C, and flavonoids, as noted by the University of Michigan Health System. It also contains the omega-6 fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid, which may reduce inflammation, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. For eczema, rashes and inflammatory skin conditions, apply chickweed cream liberally several times a day to affected areas.

Folk Remedies

Chickweed as an internal medicine has a role in folk remedies for a wide variety of conditions, according to the UMHS. Some of these disorders include asthma, bronchitis, blood disorders, conjunctivitis, inflammation, rheumatic conditions, constipation, indigestion and obesity. Due to its mucilage content, the herb is believed to have demulcent properties that soothe mucous membranes. Homeopathic remedies use chickweed for treating psoriasis and rheumatic pain, according to

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The young shoots of chickweed are edible and make a tasty addition to salads, providing vitamin C and gamma-linolenic acid for nutrition and health benefits. Gamma-linolenic acid is essential for skin and hair growth, bone health, reproductive system function and metabolism regulation, explains the UMMC. notes fresh chickweed as a component of a cream cheese spread that includes basil and thyme, and as an ingredient in lasagna. The website provides a recipe for chickweed pesto using 2 c. of chopped fresh chickweed along with garlic, pine nuts or sunflower seeds, olive oil and Parmesan mixed well in a blender. You can serve this chickweed pesto over pasta, or use it as a dip.

Chickweed Tea

Chickweed brewed into a tea doubles this herb’s medicinal applications. The hot tea works internally to rush nutrition through the body for healing purposes. Since psoriasis tends to flare up in times of stress, a nutritious cup of mild tea also serves to relax the mind so the body can mend.
A clean cloth can be soaked in the cooled tea and applied to areas inflamed by psoriasis’s telltale lesions. Be certain to follow up the external tea treatment with a lubricating skin cream.
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Chickweed Tincture

Psoriasis can be relieved from the inside out with the use of an alcohol-based tincture. This remedy is a concentrated form of the herb. It is available in standardized and traditional concentrations. The tincture serves to ease both digestive and skin problems, which surface during an outbreak of psoriasis. This form of medicine may not be an appropriate choice for children or patients who are sensitive to alcohol.

Chickweed as Food

Chickweed is often available in healthy garden soil in the early spring. It was introduced to North America as a salad green but fell out of favor in the mid-twentieth century due to its short shelf life in grocery stores. Gardeners know this weed well. It is used as an alfalfa sprout substitute in sandwiches and salads and offers a fresh flavor and nutrition to keep the skin healthy.
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Chickweed in the Bath

The inflammation of psoriasis is often brought on by stress. A mildly warm bath can give relief to the mind and body. Tie chickweed into a muslin square and allow it to soak in the bath water. The cloth can also serve as a swab to bring comfort to dry areas. Combine chickweed with rolled oats for extra skin treatment.

Chickweed (Stellaria media) has been used as folk medicine for skin conditions such as psoriasis for centuries. The soothing application of the herb as a poultice, salve or cream still wins converts for those suffering from this mysterious disease. In “Herbal Medicine Materia Medica,” David L. Hoffman says that chickweed “is commonly used as an external remedy for cuts, wounds and especially for itching and irritation. If eczema or psoriasis causes this sort of irritation, chickweed may be used with benefit.”
Internally, chickweed can be taken as a nutritional supplement to take advantage of the high amounts of trace minerals and vitamins contained within the plant’s leaves. A hundred grams of chickweed offer .52 mg of zinc and 7,229 IU of vitamin A, which both top the chart of nutrients recommended for treating psoriasis symptoms.

Chickweed Ointment

Chickweed is a popular ingredient in herbal moisturizers designed to ease skin irritation associated with psoriasis. Topical treatment for this disease includes creams, salves and ointments. Most herbal creams also include calendula and aloe to revitalize dry, red skin patches. Ointments that include vitamin D along with chickweed are even more effective.
Fresh Salvia Divinorum Extract & Leaves

Fresh Salvia Divinorum Extract & Leaves

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Monday, August 6th, 2012

Effect of Mulberry Leaf Extract on Blood

Glucose & Breath Hydrogen Results to

Ingestion of 75 g Sucrose by Type 2 Diabetic

Control Subjects

Black mulberries are the most common & very flavoursome. The white ones are sweeter but less flavour .
The white mulberry tree is more of a weeping style in it’s growth pattern
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In Asia, type 2 diabetes is treated with mulberry leaf. Studies supporting this usage include the demonstration that mulberry leaf 1) reduced blood glucose in normal rats (1) and rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (2) or alloxan (3), 2) reduced fasting blood glucose and A1C concentrations in 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (4), and 3) relative to glybenclamide therapy, reduced fasting blood glucose, serum lipids, and lipid peroxidation indicators in subjects with type 2 diabetes (5). In the present study, we determined whether co-ingestion of mulberry extract with 75 g sucrose influenced the blood glucose response and sucrose absorption of type 2 diabetic and control subjects.

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Participants included 10 healthy control subjects (aged 24–61 years) and 10 type 2 diabetic subjects without complications who were receiving oral hypoglycemic agents (aged 59–75 years; glycohemoglobin 7.1 ± 0.9% [normal <6.2%]). The study was approved by the Minneapolis VA Medical Center Human Studies Committee. Mulberry leaf extract was provided by NatureGen (San Diego, CA). Placebo (red dye #40 and caramel) was similar in color and taste to the mulberry.

At 8 a.m., subjects randomly ingested mulberry extract (1 g) or placebo plus 75 g sucrose in 500 ml hot water. The test was repeated in 1 week with the opposite treatment. Medications (except acarbose) were allowed. Hourly breath samples for H2 measurements (6) were obtained for 8 h. Blood glucose was assessed via finger stick (AccuCheck; Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) before and at intervals over 120 min after sucrose ingestion in control subjects and additionally at 180 and 240 min in type 2 diabetic subjects. A low H2–producing lunch was provided after completion of glucose measurements. On the test day, subjects kept a diary of severity of abdominal and other symptoms rated on a linear scale (0 = none through 4 = severe) (7).
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Calculations and statistics.

Because blood glucose concentrations often declined below baseline after 120 min, the significance of differences of blood glucose increases between extract and placebo was determined by ANOVA of values obtained over the initial 120 min. The statistical model included treatment and time as repeated measures and the interactions of treatment and time. The influence of treatment on breath H2 was determined from differences between areas under the curves for 8 h (two-tailed paired t test). Sucrose malabsorption was estimated from breath H2 concentrations (8).


Compared with placebo, co-ingestion of mulberry produced significant reductions in blood glucose increases for the initial 120 min of the study (Fig. 1). The mean ± SD increases in glucose for mulberry versus placebo over this period were 15 ± 18 vs. 22 ± 33 mg/dl (P = 0.005) for control subjects and 42 ± 28 vs. 54 ± 46 mg/dl (P = 0.002) for type 2 diabetic subjects. Placebo was associated with greater glucose declines below fasting at the tail end of the study (Fig. 1). The peak-to-trough difference in blood glucose concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) less for mulberry versus placebo for both groups.

Breath H2 concentration was greater (P < 0.01) in the mulberry versus the placebo treatment for both subject groups. Sucrose malabsorption with the extract was estimated to be 12 and 16 g for the control and diabetic subjects, respectively. There was no significant difference in severity for any symptom between mulberry- and placebo-treated subjects; 3 of 20 subjects receiving mulberry or placebo reported mild gas and/or bloating.


The co-ingestion of mulberry extract with 75 g sucrose significantly reduced the increase in blood glucose observed over the initial 120 min of testing in control and type 2 diabetic subjects (Fig. 1). Blood glucose declines at the tail end of the study were less with extract. Thus, peak-to-trough fluctuations in blood glucose were markedly reduced by mulberry ingestion.

The mulberry-induced reduction in blood glucose presumably reflects the ability of mulberry to inhibit intestinal sucrase (9). The increased H2 observed with mulberry indicates that this supplement induced sucrose malabsorption.

The reduction of blood glucose at early time points but higher values at later time points with mulberry would yield relatively minor alterations in A1C. However, factors other than A1C concentrations may play a role in the microvascular complications of diabetes (10,11). Brownlee (12) proposed that generation of reactive oxygen species is the common pathway responsible for diabetes complications, and glucose fluctuations are associated with increased markers of oxidative injury (13). Thus, reductions in blood glucose fluctuation with mulberry extract might reduce diabetes complications despite minor reduction of A1C.

Two drugs (acarbose and miglitol) that inhibit carbohydrate digestion produce modest reductions in fasting blood glucose and A1C (14) and slow progression of glucose intolerance to overt diabetes (15). Use of these drugs has been limited by associated bloating, gas, and diarrhea (16). These symptoms were not significantly increased by mulberry extract; however, convincing evidence of lesser side effects will require studies with extract ingested with each major meal.
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Some individuals prefer an herbal over a pharmaceutical preparation, and such individuals might find mulberry extract more acceptable and better tolerated than acarbose or miglitol. In addition, mulberry extract contains compounds such as fagomine, which induces insulin secretion (17), and antioxidants that putatively reduce lipid peroxidation (5,18,19).

While mulberry leaf is considered safe as a drug and a foodstuff in Asia (20), the extract contains multiple constituents, increasing the potential for idiosyncratic reactions. While unlikely, such reactions can be excluded only after extensive, monitored use of the extract.

Figure 1—

Figure 1—

Changes in blood glucose concentration from the fasting concentration of 10 healthy control subjects (A) and 10 type 2 diabetic subjects (B) after ingestion of 75 g sucrose with 1.0 g mulberry leaf extract (□) or placebo (⧫). The difference between mulberry and placebo over the first 120 min of the study, determined by ANOVA, was highly significant for control (P = 0.005) and diabetic (P = 0.002) subjects.


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  20. Srivastava S, Kapoor R, Thathola A, Srivastava RP: Mulberry (Morus alba) leaves as human food: a new dimension of sericulture. Int J Food Sci & Nutr 54:411–416, 2003

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Traditionally, mulberries have been used to nourish and clean the blood, benefit the kidneys, treat weakness, fatigue and anemia. They have a strong anti-inflammatory and antiseptic action, which may help cleanse the digestive tract and benefit those with gout, arthritis, or rheumatic problems. The fruits faint scent and sweet taste make it suitable for all ages.

Black Mulberries are believed to have been consumed by mankind since before recorded history. The mulberry has been cultivated in China for at least 50,000 years, mainly for the rearing of silkworms. The bark of the black mulberry tree is traditionally used for Chinese papermaking. A mulberry tree can live for over 600 years. Until recently many trees in England dated back to the 17th century. King James I planted plantations of trees around England, in an effort to rear silkworms. The entire yield was enough to make only one dress for his Queen.



Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha



Friday, August 3rd, 2012

The surprising benefits of lemon!

Institute of Health Sciences, 819 N. L.L.C. Charles Street Baltimore , MD 1201.

This is the latest in medicine, effective for cancer! 
Read carefully & you be the judge. 
Lemon (Citrus) is a miraculous product to kill cancer cells.
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It is 10,000 times stronger than chemotherapy. 
Why do we not know about that? Because there are laboratories interested in making a synthetic version that will bring them huge profits. You can now help a friend in need by letting him/her know that lemon juice is beneficial in preventing the disease. Its taste is pleasant and it does not produce the horrific effects of chemotherapy.

How many people will die while this closely guarded secret is kept, so as not to jeopardize the beneficial multimillionaires large corporations? As you know, the lemon tree is known for its varieties of lemons and limes. You can eat the fruit in different ways: you can eat the pulp, juice press, prepare drinks, sorbets, pastries, etc… It is credited with many virtues, but the most interesting is the effect it produces on cysts and tumors. This plant is a proven remedy against cancers of all types.
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Some say it is very useful in all variants of cancer. It is considered also as an anti microbial spectrum against bacterial infections and fungi, effective against internal parasites and worms, it regulates blood pressure which is too high and an antidepressant, combats stress and nervous disorders.
The source of this information is fascinating: it comes from one of the largest drug manufacturers in the world, says that after more than 20 laboratory tests since 1970, the extracts revealed that:

 It destroys the malignant cells in 12 cancers, including colon, breast, prostate, lung and pancreas … The compounds of this tree showed 10,000 times better than the product Adriamycin, a drug normally used chemotherapeutic in the world, slowing the growth of cancer cells. And what is even more astonishing: this type of therapy with lemon extract only destroys malignant cancer cells and it does not affect healthy cells. 

The above lemon tree is one of several the publisher has on his property

Institute of Health Sciences, 819 N. L.L.C. Cause Street , Baltimore , MD120


There’s hope for me yet it seems

Received & published by Henry Sapiecha
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Friday, August 3rd, 2012


THE reason women live roughly four years longer than men in a place like Australia is not solely down to their reduced rate of obesity, risky behaviour and smoking. According to research published today, it’s down to genetics.

Both men and women have mitochondrial DNA but researchers from Monash University in Melbourne and Lancaster University in Britain found only females were immune to mutations carried in the mitochondria, which is found in every cell of the body.

This ”evolutionary quirk” means males are more susceptible to the mutations, negatively affecting their life expectancy.
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”A significant genetic difference in lifespan between men and women can be traced back to the mitochondria,” said the Monash University evolutionary biologist Damian Dowling.

”This difference is not caused by hormonal differences between the sexes, such as testosterone in males, or to risk-taking behaviour. It’s genetic.”

The Bureau of Statistics says a girl born today can expect to live to almost 84 while a boy is expected to live to 80.

Mitochondria are found around the nucleus of cells. Often described as the powerhouse of cells because of their responsibility for producing energy, mitochondria have also been tied to the ageing process.

While both sexes have mitochondrial DNA, only the mother passes it on to her children.

”It’s this strict maternal inheritance of mitochondria that has allowed mutations to creep in to mitochondrial genes that are harmful to males, while having no simultaneous effect on the female of the species,” Dr Dowling said.

Published in Current Biology, the study took into account the obvious tendency for men to lead riskier lifestyles than women.

”When we take out those factors, there are genetic mutations which are tied to early male ageing and these same mutations have no effect on females.”
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Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha