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Archive for May, 2015

‘Lost’ Memories recalled with Light Theraphy

Saturday, May 30th, 2015

brain diagram image www.newcures.infobrainlight image www.newcures.info

Recalling ‘Lost’ Memories with Light

Thu, 05/28/2015 – 3:25pm
Helen Knight, MIT News Correspondent

Memories that have been “lost” as a result of amnesia can be recalled by activating brain cells with light.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, researchers at MIT reveal that they were able to reactivate memories that could not otherwise be retrieved, using a technology known as optogenetics.

The finding answers a fiercely debated question in neuroscience as to the nature of amnesia, according to Susumu Tonegawa, the Picower Professor in MIT’s Department of Biology and director of the RIKEN-MIT Center at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, who directed the research by lead authors Tomas Ryan, Dheeraj Roy, and Michelle Pignatelli.

Neuroscience researchers have for many years debated whether retrograde amnesia — which follows traumatic injury, stress, or diseases such as Alzheimer’s — is caused by damage to specific brain cells, meaning a memory cannot be stored, or if access to that memory is somehow blocked, preventing its recall.

“The majority of researchers have favored the storage theory, but we have shown in this paper that this majority theory is probably wrong,” Tonegawa says. “Amnesia is a problem of retrieval impairment.”

Memory researchers have previously speculated that somewhere in the brain network is a population of neurons that are activated during the process of acquiring a memory, causing enduring physical or chemical changes.

If these groups of neurons are subsequently reactivated by a trigger such as a particular sight or smell, for example, the entire memory is recalled. These neurons are known as “memory engram cells.”

Shedding Light
In 2012 Tonegawa’s group used optogenetics — in which proteins are added to neurons to allow them to be activated with light — to demonstrate for the first time that such a population of neurons does indeed exist in an area of the brain called the hippocampus.

However, until now no one has been able to show that these groups of neurons do undergo enduring chemical changes, in a process known as memory consolidation. One such change, known as “long-term potentiation” (LTP), involves the strengthening of synapses, the structures that allow groups of neurons to send signals to each other, as a result of learning and experience.

To find out if these chemical changes do indeed take place, the researchers first identified a group of engram cells in the hippocampus that, when activated using optogenetic tools, were able to express a memory.

When they then recorded the activity of this particular group of cells, they found that the synapses connecting them had been strengthened. “We were able to demonstrate for the first time that these specific cells — a small group of cells in the hippocampus — had undergone this augmentation of synaptic strength,” Tonegawa says.

The researchers then attempted to discover what happens to memories without this consolidation process. By administering a compound called anisomycin, which blocks protein synthesis within neurons, immediately after mice had formed a new memory, the researchers were able to prevent the synapses from strengthening.

When they returned one day later and attempted to reactivate the memory using an emotional trigger, they could find no trace of it. “So even though the engram cells are there, without protein synthesis those cell synapses are not strengthened, and the memory is lost,” Tonegawa says.

But startlingly, when the researchers then reactivated the protein synthesis-blocked engram cells using optogenetic tools, they found that the mice exhibited all the signs of recalling the memory in full.

“If you test memory recall with natural recall triggers in an anisomycin-treated animal, it will be amnesiac, you cannot induce memory recall,” Tonegawa says. “But if you go directly to the putative engram-bearing cells and activate them with light, you can restore the memory, despite the fact that there has been no LTP.”

‘Groundbreaking Paper’
Further studies carried out by Tonegawa’s group demonstrated that memories are stored not in synapses strengthened by protein synthesis in individual engram cells, but in a circuit, or “pathway” of multiple groups of engram cells and the connections between them.

“We are proposing a new concept, in which there is an engram cell ensemble pathway, or circuit, for each memory,” he says. “This circuit encompasses multiple brain areas and the engram cell ensembles in these areas are connected specifically for a particular memory.”

The research dissociates the mechanisms used in memory storage from those of memory retrieval, according to Ryan. “The strengthening of engram synapses is crucial for the brain’s ability to access or retrieve those specific memories, while the connectivity pathways between engram cells allows the encoding and storage of the memory information itself,” he says.

Changes in synaptic strength and in spine properties have long been associated with learning and memory, according to Alcino Silva, director of the Integrative Center for Learning and Memory at the University of California at Los Angeles. “This groundbreaking paper suggests that these changes may not be as critical for memory as once thought, since under certain conditions, it seems to be possible to disrupt these changes and still preserve memory,” he says. “Instead, it appears that these changes may be needed for memory retrieval, a mysterious process that has so far evaded neuroscientists.”

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Henry Sapiecha

Milwaukee man pronounced dead, then moves and breathes – authorities

Saturday, May 30th, 2015

THIS IS WHAT MAKES YOU THINK TWICE ABOUT ORGAN DONATIONS AT DEATH

gadava body work images www.newcures (25)

First responders preparing to take the body of a Milwaukee man pronounced dead to the morgue got a jolt when the man suddenly began moving and noticeably breathing, authorities said on Friday.

They had gone to the 46-year-old man’s high-rise building on Tuesday after his worried girlfriend called for assistance, saying she had not heard from him for two days, according to a medical examiner’s report.

When they arrived at his apartment, they found him cold, pale and rigid at the foot of his bed, the report said.

They did not try to resuscitate him.

About 50 minutes later, the medical examiner arrived and notified the man’s family of his death. As the examiner readied the body to be taken to the morgue, the man began to move his left arm and right leg, the report said.

Paramedics took the man, who has not been identified, to a nearby hospital, where he was admitted to the intensive care unit.

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Henry Sapiecha

CANCER IS NO EXCUSE TO AVOID SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SAYS SCHOOL

Sunday, May 17th, 2015

school girls shopDividing Cancer Cells

Cancer is No Excuse: Rose McGrath was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and started a long, difficult fight against the disease. After lengthy treatment, she’s now recovering. “Even though she’s now done with her treatment you still have a very long recovery process because you’ve basically just put two and a half years of poison into your body,” says Rose’s mother Barbara McGrath. “You’re not recovering overnight.” Despite only attending St. Joseph Middle School in Battle Creek, Mich., for 32 days this year, 12-year-old Rose is on track to pass her core classes. The school, however, sent a letter dismissing her due to attendance and academic performance issues, despite accommodations for her medical problems. “These were extraordinary circumstances,” said a Fr. John Fleckenstein of Battle Creek Area Catholic Schools, “but so many accommodations were made we felt eventually it became a point where we really had to help Rose, by being able to make sure that she was getting the assistance that she needed and to learn.” After a massive public uproar over the dismissal, the school invited Rose back, but Barbara is putting her in public school instead. (MS/WWMT Kalamazoo) …Maybe an English teacher can assist school officials with the meaning of the word “help.”

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Henry Sapiecha

Woman finds she is carrying 5kg tumour instead of baby

Friday, May 15th, 2015

pregnant woman in black image www.newcures.info

A Romanian woman has been left devastated after she turned up at hospital expecting to give birth only to find her belly bulge was a tumour.

Madalina Neagu, 42, arrived at Botosani County Hospital in northern Romania with severe abdomen pain believing she was in labour, .

After performing emergency tests Dr Dorin Scladan said he was shocked to find a 5kg tumour inside her uterus.

“As the woman told us she was pregnant, we initially expected pregnancy complications,” Dr Dorin Scladan said.

“In fact, the size of her belly was quite similar to that of a nine-month pregnant woman, so we didn’t have any reason to doubt what she told us.”

A team of doctors removed the tumour from Ms Neagu and then transferred her to intensive care.

Dr Scladan said he expects Ms Neagu to make a full recovery.

“We don’t often see a tumour of this size and in this location. It was a record tumour for the region in the past 15 years,” Dr Scladan said.

It is not known how far along the woman thought she was in her pregnancy or why the tumour was not detected earlier.

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Henry Sapiecha

Viagra slows the spread of malaria, report shows

Friday, May 15th, 2015

Viagra does more than treat erectile dysfunction. Researchers have found it can slow the spread of malaria image www.newcures.info

Viagra does more than treat erectile dysfunction. Researchers have found it can slow the spread of malaria.

The little blue pill that gives men more oomph in the bedroom has an unexpected benefit – it can slow the spread of malaria.

Viagra doesn’t just have a stiffening effect on men’s anatomy, it also makes the one-celled parasite that causes malaria more rigid.

A team of European researchers have found that this effect deforms the red blood cells that transport the parasite, encouraging the spleen to clear them from the system.

viagra & malaria image www.newcures.info

With fewer infected red blood cells circulating the body, it becomes harder for one of the most common malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum, to be transmitted to an uninfected mosquito when it feeds on an infected person or animal.

Lead researcher Catherine Lavasec, from the Pasteur Institute in France, said there was a desperate need for novel interventions to target the transmission of the malaria parasite from a human host to the mosquito.

“Blocking Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes has been designated a strategic objective in the global agenda of malaria elimination,” she said.

Normally, infected blood cells slip by the spleen because they are as squishy as healthy red blood cells.

Using an artificial spleen, the team found that certain drugs such as Viagra, also known as sildenafil, could stiffen these cells by inhibiting an enzyme that would normally make them squishy. The stiff cells are then cleared by the spleen.

As well as treating erectile dysfunction, Viagra has been used to lower blood pressure and relieve altitude sickness.

The research team said their findings are “proof of principle” that certain drugs can target malaria-infected red blood cells and these may be used as a new class of antimalarial drugs.

More than 198 million people were infected with malaria and more than 500,000 people died from the disease in 2013, according to the latest global estimates collected by the World Health Organisation.

The malaria parasite can only be transmitted by the females of certain varieties of mosquitoes from the Anopheles genus. Females need nutrients from a blood meal to develop their eggs.

The study was partly funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome Trust and has been published in the scientific journal PLOS Pathogens.

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Henry Sapiecha

 

Why a weak handshake is bad news for your heart

Thursday, May 14th, 2015

healthy handshake image www.newcures.info

Do it for your heart: A healthy handshake.

The strength of your handshake could indicate the chance of a future heart attack, a major study suggests.

Researchers found that the vigour of a person’s grip could predict the risk of heart attacks and strokes – and was a stronger indicator of death than checking systolic blood pressure.

The study in The Lancet, involving almost 140,000 adults in 17 countries, found weak grip strength was linked to shorter survival and a greater risk of having a heart attack or stroke.

Reduced muscular strength, which can be measured by grip strength, has been consistently linked with early death, disability, and illness. But there has been limited research on whether grip strength could be used to indicate heart health.
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Grip strength was assessed using a device that measures the force exerted when a subject squeezes an object as hard as possible with their hands.

The findings show that every five-kilo decline in grip strength was associated with a 16 per cent increased risk of death from any cause; a 17 per cent greater risk of cardiovascular death; a 17 per cent higher risk of non-cardiovascular mortality and more modest increases in the risk of having a heart attack (seven per cent) or a stroke (nine per cent).

Overall, grip strength was a stronger predictor of all deaths, including those from heart disease, than systolic blood pressure.

The associations persisted even after taking into account differences in other factors that can affect mortality or heart disease such as age, education level, employment status, physical activity level, and tobacco and alcohol use.

Dr Darryl Leong, of McMaster University in Canada, who was the lead author, said: “Grip strength could be an easy and inexpensive test to assess an individual’s risk of death and cardiovascular disease.

“Further research is needed to establish whether efforts to improve muscle strength are likely to reduce an individual’s risk of death and cardiovascular disease.”

The Telegraph, London

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Henry Sapiecha

Human sperm grown in lab for first time, say scientists

Monday, May 11th, 2015

Sperm created from embryonic stem cells at Newcastle University in Britain image www.newcures.info

Sperm created from embryonic stem cells at Newcastle University in Britain.

London: Human sperm cells have been grown in a laboratory for the first time, in a breakthrough that could lead to a treatment for male infertility, scientists claim.

A French firm said it had produced “fully formed” sperm from basic reproduction cells.

The research has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal, and experts greeted the news with caution. However, if proven, the technique could offer hope to people who cannot have children.

The Kallistem laboratory in Lyon said its finding paved the way for new methods of treating infertile men

“At the end of 2014, the company was able to produce fully formed human spermatozoa [sperm cells] in the laboratory setting, using patient testicular biopsies containing only immature germ cells, or spermatogonia,” the company said in a statement.

“This research paves the way for innovative therapies to preserve and restore male fertility, a major issue with global impact; numbers of spermatozoa have declined by 50 per cent over the last 50 years.”

Joyce Harper, professor of human genetics and embryology at University College London, said: “This is a great move forward – it is really exciting.”

However, she added: “They have said that this is still early stages and we’ve got a long way to go, and that is absolutely correct. There are a number of studies that need to be done.

“The only way you can check if a sperm is really viable is if it fertilises an egg and goes on and develops into a baby.”

Professor Harper said most infertile men did produce sperm that can be extracted from their reproductive system as part of specialised treatment.

Kallistem’s new treatment would be for those who do not produce any mature sperm at all, she added, although, in these cases, the resulting cells would have to be checked to ensure they are “genetically normal”.

Spermatogenesis, the process through which basic reproduction cells – the germ cells – develop into sperm cells, is an extremely complex one. It takes about 72 days in the human body. The scientists said their research could help tens of thousands of men.

Infertility affects at least 10 per cent of couples, and in at least a third of cases it relates to male fertility problems, which are often genetic.

The most common defect is missing regions of male Y chromosomes, which is associated with the production of few or no sperm.

Under the new process, experts would be able to extract reproductive cells from a man’s testes and then freeze them until he wishes to father a child, the firm said.

However, Professor Allan Pacey, of the University of Sheffield, urged couples to treat the announcement with caution.

He said: “This is a bold claim to make and we have had our fingers burnt before. Until I see a peer-reviewed scientific publication showing unequivocally that this has been done, I have to remain sceptical.

“Claims like this can often cause heartache for infertile couples who see them as hope only to have their hopes dashed later when it doesn’t translate into an available procedure.”

Kallistem, which is trying to raise funding for its research, will hold preclinical trials until next year and clinical trials in 2017.

“If it works, this procedure opens great prospects,” said Nathalie Rives, the manager of a fertility clinic.

However, like Professor Harper, she warned that adults suffering from a complete lack of sperm might have “genetic anomalies” that could exclude them from the process.

Professor Israel Nisand, co-founder of the European Bioethics Forum, said the procedure was preferable to reproductive cloning.

Previously, lab-created spermatogenesis had been successful only in mice.

Last year, American researchers announced that they had used skin from infertile men to create sperm after the samples were implanted into the testes of mice.

The samples were genetically engineered to assume the properties of embryonic stem cells beforehand.

Telegraph, London

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Henry Sapiecha

THESE ARE SOME 21 HEALTH FRAUDS TO KEEP AN EYE OPEN FOR

Tuesday, May 5th, 2015

21 Total Health Frauds You Need To Know About…

WARRANTY SEALED ENVELOPE RED WHITE IMAGE www.newcures.info

There are many health remedies and empty promises out there which simply do not work. Not only are some people being tricked, but some are even harmed. Here are 21 health frauds you need to know about…

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1. Identity Theft

id_theft_card image www.newcures.info

In this case, medical identity theft is a real issue. This is when a person’s identity has been misused in order to pay for services, bills, medications, or whatever else they desire. This is not only happening to patients, as doctors are also being targeted. The identity of doctors are stolen, then used to write fake prescriptions.

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2. Miracle Cures

miracledrug_image www.newcures.info

If anything claims to be a ‘miracle cure,’ then it’s probably too good to be true. Companies will often use claims such as ‘secret ingredient’ or ‘new scientific discovery.’ The truth is, if these claims were true, treating a well-known condition, it would be all over the media. Don’t fall for miracle cure scams. Know what you’re buying first.

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3. Quick Fixes

losing weight fast image www.newcures.info

Once again, if it seems to good to be true, it probably is. Very few conditions can be treated rapidly, even with the latest, most legitimate products and medications. If anyone makes claims like, ‘cure your lung cancer in days’ or ‘lose 40 pounds in a month,’ then you should be VERY cautious.

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4. Anti-Aging

anti-aging-womans face image www.newcures.info

We value a younger looking culture, which is why people strive to looker younger each and every day. There are so many pills on the market, which haven’t been proven to reduce the signs of aging. There are also creams, therapies, and all kinds of false claims. You’re better off eating right, exercising, and minimizing stress.

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5. Arthritis Remedies

taking fish oil tablets in hand image www.newcures.info

This is a large area of concern, as SO many people are affected by arthritis. If you see claims that magnets, chemicals, radiation, magic pills, or any other form of treatment will cure your arthritis, it’s unlikely that it actually will. Once again, rest, exercises, heat and diet are your best bet when it comes to reducing symptoms.

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6. Cancer Cures

prison-doctor-image www.newcures.info

It’s sad that people take advantage of others during their most desperate times, but it happens. Scam artists most certainly prey on cancer patients, because they’ll do anything to improve their condition. There isn’t a treatment that can cure all cancer types, it simply doesn’t exist yet. Don’t waste your time with UNPROVEN treatments, as this is precious time wasted.

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7. False Memory Aids

Brain-Memory-image www.newcures.info

Smart pills will not improve your memory, which are often marketed as miracle pills for dementia or Alzheimer’s. There isn’t a cure for these conditions, so please be aware. You need to keep your mind stimulated and provide it with nutrients. If you are suffering from issues with your memory, create a treatment plan with your doctor, do not buy pills off of the Internet.

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8. Dietary Supplements

pills & Supplements-image www.newcures.info

There are most certainly some great supplements out there, but there are also a lot of fraudulent products as well. Since the Federal Government does not consider supplements to be medicine they’re not regulated as tightly. Many supplements are not properly tested, which could cause you more harm than good.

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9. Health Insurance Scams

health insurance doc image www.newcures.info

Careful when purchasing health insurance, as the fine print may suggest something else. Many insurance companies will make claims, but than fail to deliver. If you do buy insurance, ALWAYS make sure that the company is licensed within your state.

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10. Counterfeit Prescription Drugs

dangerous_online_drug_pharmacies_counterfeit_medication image www.newcures.info

Some companies are selling fraudulent medications online. Many seniors are looking for cheaper options, which these companies provide. This is dangerous, because they don’t know what’s in the medication and it may make their condition worse. People often lose their money and are no better off in terms of their medical condition.

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11. Fraudulent Diabetes Supplements

B_vitamin_supplement_tablets-500x399 image www.newcures.info

There are many diabetes supplements which make exciting claims, yet put consumers in harms way. These supplements can result in injury or even death. There are some great supplements out there, so just make sure you do your research. Read ALL the claims and see if anything seems like it’s conflicting. Also, ask you doctor to look at the ingredient list and claims, so that you know you’re not putting yourself at-risk.

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12. Tainted Sexual Enhancement Drugs

white pills in bulk image www.newcures.info

There are many products that are now being offered, which include dangerous ingredients. Some include prescription drugs (which are unrelated to the condition the consumer is trying to treat), hidden active ingredients, illegal drugs and more. This is becoming increasingly popular in sexual enhancement drugs, so please be cautious before you purchase any enhancement drugs

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13. Weight Loss and Sibutramine

feet on scales image www.newcures.info

The FDA has found multiple weight-loss supplements which contain the prescription drug known as sibutramine. This drug has already been removed from the FDA-approved list, as it was causing heart complications and strokes. Nothing beats a healthy diet and exercise, when trying to lose weight.

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14. Bodybuilding Supplements

supplements_mass-500x277 image www.newcures.info

Not all supplements are created equal, so do not waste your money or time! In some cases, it’s not just your wallet you need to worry about. Many men’s supplements are packed with soy, causing their pecks to fill with fatty tissue. Instead of building muscle, men have been developing breasts. There are also many dangerous additives being used, so be aware of what you’re taking

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15. 7-Day Miracle Cleanse

fraud alert-signs 464641_640-500x353 image www.newcures.info

There were claims that a 7-day miracle cleanse could treat AIDs, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, and more. This was developed by Paris DeAguero, who claimed that this cleanse cured his cancer, marketing his product on infomercials. These claims were obviously false, but you see how quickly people can be impacted.

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16. Chelation Therapy For Autism

Autism-sign-00x-500x202 image www.newcures.info

We still do not understand everything there is to know about autism. This was a claim made, so that parents could remove mercury from their autistic children’s bodies. This is due to the fact that mercury-based preservatives were used in autistic medications until 2001. This therapy is not only fraudulent, but dangerous. It does NOT cure autism.

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17. Ozone Therapy

woman undergoing health theraphy image www.newcures.info

This therapy involves infused blood, drinking water with triatomic oxygen, or body cavities, in order to kill microbes. This therapy claims to kill arthritis, cancer and HIV microbes. Ground-level ozone is considered a pollutant, and should NOT be administered to your body.

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18. Malariotherapy

malaria mosquito bites flesh image www.newcures.info

This was a pre-antibiotic treatment for syphilis, developed by Dr. Henry Heimlich. He also advocates that the malaria infection, can help cure other diseases. He began to claim that this therapy could cure AIDS, even though these patients have poor immune systems.

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19. Cancell…?

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This treatment targets cancer patients, as the company Nu-gen Nutrition Inc was sued by the FTC based on false claims. Offered in the form of an electrolyte drink, this product claims to cure cancer

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20. All-Natural Processed Foods

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The food industry also uses health in order to market their products. If a product which has been processed says ‘all-natural’ does not mean that it’s a healthy choice. If something was all-natural, it should be grown out of the ground and eaten just as natural intended. The FDA has not yet defined all natural, so companies are using this to their advantage. Many of these products are packed with preservatives and use low quality ingredients.

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21. Zero Trans Fats

trans_fat_chart-image www.newcures.info 500x333

Once again, know what you’re buying. You need to read labels and ingredient lists, so that you are not fooled into making poor health choices. Companies have some wiggle room when it comes to trans fats. These are of course the unhealthiest fats, directly threatening your heart health. Products can have up to 0.5% trans fats, yet still be marketed as zero. Look for hydrogenated ingredients, so that you can protect your health and cholesterol.

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OOO

Henry Sapiecha

BIONIC EYE READY FOR HUMAN TRIALS SAY RESEARCHERS Arthur Lowery and Jeffrey Rosenfeld

Tuesday, May 5th, 2015

Arthur Lowery and Jeffrey Rosenfeld with a 9mm ceramic tile central to their bionic eye project image www.newcures.info

Arthur Lowery and Jeffrey Rosenfeld with a 9mm ceramic tile central to their bionic eye project. Photo: Simon Schluter

Researchers working on the ambitious project led by Monash University to build a bionic eye have revealed they are ready to start human trials next year.

“We have gone past the point of no return, where the device has been manufactured in prototype form and it is working in the laboratory,” said Jeffrey Rosenfeld​, director of the Monash Institute of Medical Engineering.

Professor Rosenfeld​ outlined the group’s progress in Washington DC on Monday, at the American Association for Neurology Surgeons’ annual scientific meeting.

The human trial will involve patients who have lost their sight having tiny “ceramic tiles” the size of a small fingernail implanted into their brain’s visual cortex at the Alfred Hospital, where Professor Rosenfeld​ is director of neurosurgery.

Up to five patients will participate in the trial. All will have lost their sight but Professor Rosenfeld​ said this could be due to a range of reasons.

This is because the device bypasses the normal visual pathway, unlike the other bionic eye being developed by Bionic Vision Australia which relies on an implant in the retina.

Developed by a multidisciplinary team at Monash Vision Group, the bionic eye uses a digital camera mounted on glasses to capture images before transferring them to a vision processing device about the size of a mobile phone.

Once processed, the image is transferred to an antenna attached to the back of a glasses frame.

The image is then wirelessly transmitted to the brain, where it is received by the small ceramic tiles implanted during surgery. The tiny tiles, each containing 43 microelectrodes​, measure 9mm by 9mm.

bionicEye schematic diagram image www.newcures.info

“The tiles are like a little pin cushion that pierce the brain,” Professor Rosenfeld​ said. “And we can put multiple tiles in so we can have several hundred electrodes.”

The more electrodes, the more detailed the image will be. However Monash Vision Group director Arthur Lowery said a maximum of 11 tiles, giving 473 electrodes, could be implanted. Fully-sighted people use over a million electrodes.

Working with a limited number of electrodes to carry information means the device has to be programmed to select which information it gathers and transmits.

To do this, researchers recreated what they believed people would see when they had the electrodes in the brain. They developed a computer program which takes a camera image and selects the important information before translating it into a “dot pattern” the brain would experience when excited by electrodes.

The dot patterns were then tested on sighted people using virtual reality goggles.

“That allowed us to test different visual processing algorithms,” Professor Lowery said. “The idea really is to cut out the clutter in an image and present the information that is important to people.”

More than 500,000 Australians are considered clinically blind. Many of them have damaged optical nerves, which prevent signals from reaching the brain.

The Monash Vision Group, a collaboration between Monash University, Alfred Health, MiniFAB and Grey Innovation, is building a bionic eye that bypasses the eye. Bionic Vision Australia, is taking a different approach and developing a microchip to be inserted into the retina of vision-impaired patients.

OOO

Henry Sapiecha