Archive for the ‘BLOOD’ Category


Saturday, May 21st, 2011

Europe approves

new blood thinner

from Pfizer, BMS

Associated Press, 05.20.11, 11:27 AM EDT

NEW YORK — Drugmaker Pfizer says European regulators have approved its highly-anticipated blood thinner Eliquis to prevent blood clots in patients who have had hip or knee replacement surgery.

The approval by the European commission means the drug, known as apixaban, will be available in the 27 countries of the European Union.

The drug was approved based on two studies that showed better outcomes for patients taking Eliquis rather than receiving an injection of the typical current treatment.

The drug has been promoted as a potential blockbuster drug for its ability to prevent blood clots with no bleeding side effects of older drugs like warfarin. However, last year the companies halted a 10,000-patient study due to excessive bleeding

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Sunday, March 27th, 2011

Making blood from human skin

By Grant Banks

03:48 November 14, 2010

Blood transfusions may one day come from blood produced from a patient's skin

Blood transfusions may one day come from blood produced from a patient’s skin

A new technique that allows blood to be made directly from skin cells has been discovered. The pioneering approach by Canadian researchers uses human skin stem cells to create blood stem cells without an intermediate step that previously was thought necessary.

Until now to make blood stem cells, the building blocks for a variety human cells (called pluripotent stem cells) have been used as a steppingstone a process. This has proven largely inefficient, but research led by Mick Bhatia, scientific director ofMcMaster’s Stem Cell and Cancer Research Instituteat the Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine, has shown that making blood from skin can be achieved in a one step process.

Cynthia Dunbar, head of the molecular hematopoiesis at the U.S National Institutes of Health said: “Bhatia’s approach detours around the pluripotent stem cell stage and thus avoids many safety issues, increases efficiency, and also has the major benefit of producing adult-type l blood cells instead of fetal blood cells, a major advantage compared to the thus far disappointing attempts to produce blood cells from human embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells.”

The discovery was replicated several times over two years using human skin from both the young and the elderly to prove it works for any age of person.

The approach could be used for creating blood for surgery or treating conditions like anemia from a patch of the patient’s skin. Other potential applications include generating bone marrow and improved treatment of leukaemia and other types of cancer, including solid tumors.

“We have shown this works using human skin. We know how it works and believe we can even improve on the process,” Bhatia said. “We’ll now go on to work on developing other types of human cell types from skin, as we already have encouraging evidence.”

“This finding will no doubt be met with excitement in the research and medical communities,” said Michael Rudnicki, director of The Stem Cell Network. “It’s been nearly 50 years since blood stem cells were first identified here in Canada and it’s fitting that this incredible new discovery should have happened here as well.”

The research was published in Nature on November 7.

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Tuesday, February 15th, 2011

Imaging bloodstream movement

with a humble firefly protein

By Ben Coxworth

10:14 February 14, 2011

The enzyme that allows fireflies to glow could be used to monitor the effectiveness of an ...

The enzyme that allows fireflies to glow could be used to monitor the effectiveness of an anti-blood-clotting medication (Photo: Nevit Dilmen)

Millions of people around the world are medicated with heparin, a blood thinner used for the treatment and prevention of blood clots. One of the ways in which doctors monitor the effectiveness of heparin is to look for a blood protein known as factor Xa in a patient’s bloodstream – the less factor Xa activity that is occurring, the better. Now, thanks to an enzyme obtained from fireflies, that protein may be easier than ever to detect.

The firefly enzyme is called luciferase, which sounds like something that could be used to thwart Superman. It’s what allows the insects’ abdomens to glow.

Scientists from Connecticut College have combined a protein obtained from the enzyme with special fluorescent dyes, which cause the protein to emit near-infrared light. This is particularly valuable to doctors, as near-infrared rays travel through tissue better than other types of light, allowing medical practitioners to see deeper into the body.

In laboratory tests, the luciferase derivative allowed scientists to detect the presence of factor Xa in blood samples.

Luciferase is said to be relatively inexpensive to obtain, and to be more stable than other protein-imaging agents. Scientists from Missouri’s Washington University School of Medicine have also recently had successes using bismuth-containing nanoparticles for imaging blood clots.

The luciferase research had recently been published in the journal Bioconjugate Chemistry.

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Friday, January 21st, 2011

Love bite

partially paralyses woman

January 21, 2011 – 10:49AM

A woman was partially paralysed by a love bite from her amorous partner, a New Zealand doctor has reported.

Teddy Wu said he believed it was the first time someone had been admitted to hospital as a result of a “hickey”.

An article on the case has appeared in the New Zealand Medical Journal.

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Dr Wu said he saw the woman over a year ago while he was working in Middlemore Hospital in Auckland.

The 44-year-old Maori woman went to the emergency department after experiencing loss of movement in her left arm.

It happened while she was sitting watching television.

Her only injury was a love bite on the right of her neck near an artery.

“Because it was a love bite there would be a lot of suction, said Dr Wu, who now works in the neurology department at Christchurch Hospital.

“Because of the physical trauma it had made a bit of bruising inside the vessel.

“There was a clot in the artery underneath where the hickey was.”

The clot had gone into the woman’s heart and caused a minor stroke that led to the loss of movement, he said.

She was treated with warfarin, an anticoagulant.

That treatment made the clot disappear almost entirely within a week, he said.

“We looked around the medical literature and that example of having a love bite causing something like that hasn’t been described before,” he said.

If it had not been treated quickly the woman could have suffered more strokes.

“Strokes have different levels of severity. But possibly patients can become paralysed.”

The woman was fine at a one-month follow-up appointment, the Journal reported.

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Wednesday, January 12th, 2011

  • Undo bruises with a BANANA?! Yes! Your kids or grandkids especially will love this. Place the banana peel on the bruise . Relieves the pain almost instantly, speeds healing, reduces discoloration. So effective (and funny-sounding) kids stop crying and start laughing!
  • Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Wednesday, January 12th, 2011

Cut your cholesterol nearly in halfwith avocado?

Yes, according to scientific studies, the  “avocado cure” really could lower your cholesterol up to 42%. It turns out avocados are positively packed with heart-healthy omega-9 fatty acids — and they’re rich in a compound called beta-sitosterol, which has been shown to lower cholesterol in 16 different studies!

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Monday, December 27th, 2010


Alzheimer’s disease and high levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol are very much common in western societies.  It is said that, in the United States alone, greater than 50 percent of its adult population has high cholesterol levels.  Approximately 1 percent of individuals aging between 65 to 69 years acquire Alzheimer’s disease.  For people who are older than 95 years old, the prevalence is increased by more than 60 percent.

Dyslipidemia:  Up Close

Increased levels of cholesterol present a variety of health hazards to the affected person.  This predisposes one to a multitude of illness, some of which are often fatal.  High cholesterol levels are tough on the blood vessels, especially on the arteries.  This may lead to the accumulation of fatty deposits within the walls and linings of the arteries which could seriously impede blood flow.  The blood flow in the specific area of the artery where fatty deposits have accumulated becomes sluggish.  This prompts the heart to pump harder in order to make sure that blood reaches the vital organs.  This doubles the heart effort, putting more workload to one of the most important organs in the body. As a result of the cascade of events, the dangers are foreseen:  high blood pressure, the possibility of embolism, stroke, heart attack, atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease, kidney failure, heart failure and many more.  These are reason enough for you to make sure that essential steps are done in order to prevent the onset of dyslipidemia.

Shedding a Light on Alzheimer’s Disease

According to a report released by the Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI), an association composed of 73 Alzheimer’s organization, 5.3 million Americans are afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease and approximately 500,000 new cases will be diagnosed by 2010.  The economic impact is devastating – Alzheimer’s disease severely affects the person’s quality of life as it causes the loss of normal cognitive functioning such as reasoning, remembering and thinking.  It is a progressive and irreversible disease that slowly destroys thinking skills and memory, and will eventually hinder the patient’s ability to perform even the most simple task.

Scientists are currently hard at work try to pinpoint the exact mechanism that causes Alzheimer’s disease, and why majority of the affected individuals are the elderly.  Because the cause is unknown, treatment also remains out of reach.

Associating Dyslipidemia and Alzheimer’s disease

A report published in the December issue of one of the JAMA/Archives journals, Archives of Neurology, stated that high amounts of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), commonly known as the “good” form of cholesterol, seem to be linked to a lowered risk of Alzheimer’s disease in elderly adults.

Dr. Christiane Reitz, Ph.D and her colleagues enrolled 1,130 elderly individuals in order for the researchers to examine the link between Alzheimer’s disease and the levels of fat present in the blood.  A random sampling of old adults with ages 65 and older and who are residents of Northern Manhattan was conducted.  The other criteria for inclusion include being a Medicare recipient and having no history of cognitive impairment or dementia.  The researchers’ definition of high cholesterol levels was at 55 milligrams per decilitre, or more.

In order to determine the link between HDL levels and Alzheimer’s disease, data were gathered from neuropsychological, neurological and medical evaluations.  Furthermore, the researchers assigned the following diagnosis based on the cause of dementia:

  • “Probable” Alzheimer’s disease – dementia onset could not be further explained by other disorders
  • “Possible” Alzheimer’s disease – the cause of dementia is mostly likely Alzheimer’s disease but other disorders are present which could contribute to the development of dementia, such as Parkinson’s disease or stroke.

For the duration of the follow-up period, 101 subjects were diagnosed with new cases of Alzheimer’s disease – 12 were possible, and 89 belonged to the probable category.  Average age of possible and probable onset of Alzheimer’s disease was 83 years.  It was found that Hispanic subjects as well as those who had higher incidence of diabetes at the beginning of the study have been shown to have developed dementia.  Moreover, for subjects who had higher levels of HDL in their plasma (55 mg/dl or higher), there was a decreased risk of developing both possible and probable Alzheimer’s disease, even after adjustments on lipid-lowering treatments and vascular risk factors were made.

Other Natural Means to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease

  • The American Journal of Medicine has published a study indicating that people who consume at least three servings of vegetable and fruit juices each week have a 76 percent reduction in their risk of Alzheimer’s disease as compared to people who consume less than one serving each week.  However, for people who have problems with their blood sugar levels and because some fruits contain high sugar levels, vegetable juices are more recommended. Eating raw vegetables, with the absence of a juicer, can also help.Examples of vegetables and fruits include cherries, plums, raisins, blueberries, apples, red bell peppers, spinach and eggplant.
  • The regular intake of foods rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),  can also help slow Alzheimer’s disease progression.  This is according to the results of a study which was published in the Journal of Neuroscience. Omega-3 fatty acids helps build and maintain the healthy state of the nervous system – the main system affected in Alzheimer’s disease.Excellent food sources include salmon, flax seeds, purslane, seaweeds, walnuts and cod liver oil.
  • The National Institutes of Health said that some aluminum compounds have been linked to the neurological damage featured in Alzheimer’s disease. Although it is impossible to totally avoid being exposed to aluminum because we may never know that the air we breathe, the water we drink and the food on our table may be contaminated, still, it is important to know the most common sources of aluminum exposure such as antiperspirants; over-the-counter drugs like buffered aspirin and antacids; and processed cheese.
  • Doing mentally-stimulating activities is a perfect way to exercise your brain cells. Adopt hobbies that will force you to think – go for the crossword puzzles in the morning paper, learn a new language, memorize a new poem, catch up with current events.  This will not only reduce your risk of Alzheimer’s disease, but it will also help you feel more in-touch, alert and enthusiastic.
  • Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Monday, December 27th, 2010


High blood pressure, or hypertension, means putting on unnecessary added pressure on the arteries. This is because the blood is pushing towards the wall of the blood vessel as the heart pumps out blood. If the pressure stays high, and it keeps on rising over time, this can lead to a lot of damages in many parts of the body. The dangers of hypertension include conditions such as heart failure, embolism, thrombosis, heart attack, and stroke.

However, the dangers of hypertension won’t happen if we all take extra precautionary measures to avoid high blood pressure. If you are already diagnosed with one, it is important that you implement ways on how to lower your blood pressure.

Some are as follows:

  1. Exercise daily – Getting regular exercise makes the heart stronger. Less effort will be needed to pump the blood out with a strong heart. The force on the arteries decreases and the blood pressure is lowered when the heart exerts less effort in pumping. Being active makes the systolic blood pressure – the first number in blood pressure reading – lower.However, it is essential to remember that, in order to achieve the health benefits that exercise promises, sticking to a regular exercise regimen is needed. It would take about three months for exercise to create an impact on your blood pressure, so continued action is advised.
  2. Avoid animal fats – Although some fat is required by the body, many studies have shown that it can even raise high blood pressure and increase the risk of stroke, depending on the type of fat that is consumed.In the Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, a study showed that fats, specifically saturated animal fats, significantly increase blood pressure. When fats taken from marine sources were consumed, such as fish oils and plant oils, there was no significant increase in blood pressure. Saturated animal fats that can be found on chicken, pork and beef should be clearly avoided when trying to fight high blood pressure.
  3. Avoid tobacco and alcohol when trying to lower your blood pressure. Nicotine found in cigarette or tobacco products can raise your blood pressure. In addition, the chemicals can also damage the arteries. Too much alcohol consumption can also lead to the same effect, although drinking it at the right amount can sometimes help. You should also look out for caffeine since recent studies show that regular consumption can increase blood pressure. This may appear difficult since tobacco, alcohol and caffeine are mostly a part of some people’s daily routine, so intake must at least be limited.
  4. Reduce weight – Reducing or controlling your weight can significantly lower your blood pressure. It will help you feel better.  It is advised that you should engage in more exercise to keep your heart healthy. It’s best to do it slowly, eating fewer calories than you burn. For example, replace a chocolate bar with small apple for lunch; have baked chicken instead of fried chicken during dinner; and take a 15 minute brisk walk after meals instead of sitting aimlessly.
  5. Get sufficient sleep – A study by Dr. Kristen L. Knutson published in the June 8 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine linked the insufficiency of sleep to increasing levels of blood pressure. Results showed that subjects who had shorter and lower quality of sleep had increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings. It was suggested that insufficient sleep affects the way the body responds to stress that may lead to increased blood pressure.
  6. Purchase a home monitor – Buying your own blood pressure monitor will help you keep track of your blood pressure levels regularly, especially if you are continuously experiencing high blood pressures. This will help you find out how your blood pressure changes during the day. It will also help your doctor find out how your treatment regimen is working in order to stabilize your blood pressure.
  7. Increase magnesium intake – Studies suggest that there is a certain link between magnesium and blood pressure. Diets that include numerous fruits and vegetables, widely known to contain potassium and magnesium, is consistently said to be associated with lowered the blood pressure. It was said that consuming and sticking to a diet plan that is rich in magnesium, potassium, calcium and low in fat and sodium can significantly lower blood pressure according to the DASH study (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). Another study also proved this case when they tested the effect of nutritional factors on 30,000 US male health professionals. The results of the study showed that lower risk of blood pressure was seen in those with greater magnesium intake.
  8. Listen to the sounds of soothing music – Listening to non-verbal, soothing, instrumental music for at least 30 minutes a day can have great effects on the human body. It relaxes the body through its slow and peaceful rhythm, thus lowering heart rate, and lightening up breathing and brain activity. This will reduce stress and eventually lower your blood pressure.
  9. Get Garlic – Consuming garlic, and garlic supplements, is of good use to people with mild high blood pressure, according to recent studies.  It can thin the blood and prevent it to clot, like aspirin – minus the side effects. Kyolic® Aged Garlic Extract™ is a totally balanced garlic supplement that gives the full benefits of garlic, without the odor and aftertaste of other garlic supplements. Garlic is widely known as a hypertensive medication. Even researchers at the University of Mississippi proved the potential of garlic to reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
  10. Start Juicing – There are many fruits and vegetables that can aid in lowering blood pressure. Aside from directly eating them, you can also juice them. Some of my favorites include juicing carrot, apple, beet and celery because of their blood pressure-lowering activities. You can drink celery juice alone, or mix it with carrot. Beet root juice clearly helps in lowering and normalizing blood pressure. You can mix it with celery-carrot juice occasionally.
  11. Meditate – Meditation is considered by doctors worldwide to lower blood pressure levels. Stress is one of the major factors which cause high blood pressure, and meditating could help reduce stress. Transcendental Meditation (TM) is by far one of the easiest meditating techniques one could learn to lower high blood pressure at the same time reducing the need for blood pressure-lowering medications. This should be done daily. Research has also proven that TM can reduce high blood pressure without the need for medication.
  12. Visualize “lower blood pressure” – The mind has a very powerful control over the human body. It can influence our immunity and empower us to recover from conditions such as cancer and high blood pressure. Research has shown how visualization can trigger the body’s ability to self-heal. You can try visualizing your blood vessels opening as you exhale and this can actually help you relax. The mind has the greatest power than any other form of medication. If you try to visualize what happens in the body that can cause high blood pressure, you can see how things work, and think up of something to counter these.
  13. Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Thursday, December 23rd, 2010

Cure clues from cancer cell close-up

Dec 17 – Video of tumor growth in zebrafish is providing clues that could lead to new cancer treatments. Images from scientists in the UK and Italy show how new cancer cells co-opt the immune system into helping the disease spread. Rob Muir reports

Cure clues from cancer cell close-upView video here

Cure clues from cancer cell close-up

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha


Saturday, December 18th, 2010

I. Introduction
Blood can be dangerous. Blood can be contaminated with
blood borne pathogens. Exposure to a blood borne pathogen
can cause blood borne disease.
II. General Reference Source

The general reference source is the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) standard and is found at 29
CFR 1910.1030. This part of the Code of Federal Regulations
applies to all occupational exposure to blood or other potentially
infectious materials.
The reference was primarily adopted for workers such as
nurses, EMS, paramedics, medical technologists etc. whose
exposure to blood and sharp materials was often present.
III. Bloodborne Pathogens
Working in the wastewater industry may expose a worker to
blood borne pathogens.
The blood borne pathogens include, but are not limited
to, the following:
• Hepatitis B (HBV)
• Hepatitis C
• Hepatitis D, Hepatitis G
• Syphilis
• Malaria
• Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
IV. Other Potentially Infectious Material
In addition to blood borne pathogens, other potentially infectious
materials may present a risk of harm in the wastewater
In this contact hour course, both blood and other infectious
materials will be referred to as “PIM” (potentially infectious
Although PIM could present a risk of harm in the wastewater
workplace, with some exceptions, it is not considered
a significant threat. The standard was primarily adopted for
occupations such as doctors, nurses, EMTs, ambulance…

Study the short course and do the exam below


Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha