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Archive for the ‘VACCINES’ Category

Scientists ‘can’t explain’ Black Death plague outbreak

Monday, October 30th, 2017

An image of the Ebola virus under a microscope.

PLAGUE warnings were being issued for nine countries in south-east Africa this week, as authorities rushed to contain an outbreak of Black Death.

It’s the same virus that led to one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, killing an estimated 25 million people in Medieval Europe.

The recent outbreak is believed to have started in Madagascar, an island nation off the African coast, and at least 1300 people have been infected.

It’s a serious bacterial infection transmitted by fleas, and can be easily treated with antibiotics, but so far 124 have been reported dead.

“Plague, though terrifying, is nothing new in Madagascar, where about 600 cases are reported annually,” the World Health Organisation said on its website.

However, WHO officials warned there is “something different” about this outbreak, and “health officials couldn’t explain it”.

“Plague is a disease of poverty, because it thrives in places with poor sanitary conditions and health services,” said Dr Arthur Rakotonjanabelo.

However, he said the plague had spread to new parts of the country, which hadn’t seen the plague since at least 1950.

SO WHEN WILL THE NEXT OUTBREAK BE?

Scientists have known about it since 1976, but it took the world by surprise three years ago.

Global health authorities are constantly trying to predict the next outbreak – bacterial or viral – so it can be stopped before it becomes an epidemic or pandemic.

The Global Virome Project, which was proposed in 2016 and is just beginning to take shape, is one ambitious initiative which aims to find all viruses in birds and mammals that could spill over to humans in the next decade.

Meanwhile, the US Agency for International Development has spent the past eight years cataloguing threats, identifying 1000 new viruses.

However, experts estimate 99.9 per cent of viruses are still unknown.

A new Australian study, published this week by Jemma Geoghegan from Macquarie University and Edward Holmes from the University of Sydney, argued it’s impossible to predict a global outbreak because there are too many variables.

They said efforts will fail because the enormous number of unknown viruses could evolve and appear in humans at any time.

“The [Global Virome Project] will be great for understanding more about viruses and their evolution, but I don’t see how it’ll help us work out what’s going to infect us,” Dr Geoghegan told The Atlantic‘s Ed Yong.

“We’re only just coming to terms with the vastness of the virosphere.”

Once a virus achieves human-to-human transmission, it’s really just a matter of luck as to how severe and contagious it is, and whether or not it can be treated quickly.

EVOLUTION CAN BE GREAT, AND TERRIBLE

Scientists are always trying to identify the next threat before it reaches epidemic or pandemic proportions

Both humans and diseases are constantly changing, so it’s a bit like trying to hit a moving target from a moving car.

“We’re trying to predict really, really rare events from not much information, which I think is going to fail,” Dr Geoghegan said – and history agrees.

For example, scientists discovered the Zika virus in Uganda way back in 1947, and yet there was an outbreak on the other side of the world, in Brazil, two years ago.

The disease is spread by mosquitoes, and can cause severe birth defects in babies if the mother is bitten while pregnant.

Similarly, the Ebola virus was discovered in 1976 in South Sudan, but it claimed a reported 11,315 lives in west Africa three years ago.

It is highly infectious and spreads through transmission of bodily fluids, causing a gruesome death as the whole body haemorrhages.

Still other diseases emerge totally out of the blue.

One example is the SARS virus – a severe form of pneumonia – which broke out in China after a researcher accidentally caught it in a lab in 2002.

Another is HIV, a sexually transmitted virus which attacks the body’s immune system, which has claimed an estimated 35 million lives in the past 40 years.

Probably the most famous of all is the Spanish Influenza pandemic, which killed up to 100 million people – or five per cent of the world’s population – in 1918.

The other variable is changes to possible treatments – which vary widely depending if the outbreak is bacterial or viral.

Vaccines are undoubtedly the best way to treat viruses, because they require living hosts to multiply and can only really be fought off by the body’s own immune system, but they are a prevention and not a cure.

Bacteria, on the other hand, can be effectively treated with antibiotics – however, health experts warn an “antibiotic apocalypse” is fast approaching, as overuse of drugs like Penicillin lead to a significant increase in drug-resistant infections.

DOES SCIENCE HAVE A WAY FORWARD?

Dr Geoghegan thinks the best way forward is to focus just on the “fault lines”.

The Atlantic reports that means regions where people are more likely to be exposed to animal viruses because they are chopping down forests, setting up dense animal markets, hunting wild creatures for meat, or moving around a lot because of political instability.

However, others argue global scientific efforts shouldn’t be so readily dismissed.

Professor Jonna Mazet, global director for PREDICT, a European Union organisation that aims to prepare for the “domino effect” in crisis situations, told Ed Yong it’s too early to know how things will pan out.

She said if the same complaints had been made about meteorology a century ago, “we wouldn’t have created the data that lets us forecast the weather, which we can do pretty well now”.

Henry Sapiecha

Universal Cancer Vaccine Is Probably Impossible

Monday, February 27th, 2017

Cancer-Vaccine-image www.newcures (2)

The quest for vaccines to prevent cancers just hit a theoretical limit: If there ever are vaccines, there will have to be many, and not just one.

In theory, the best possible treatment for cancer would be one that required no radiation or surgery, instead using the body’s immune system to turn back a tumor’s uncontrollable growth. Recent developments in using immunotherapy to treat cancer has researchers thinking about a cancer vaccine as a potential breakthrough in prevention. But new research suggests that we shouldn’t hold out much hope for a single, universal vaccine for cancer.

While the first scientist to look at the immune system’s potential role in treating cancer conducted his research in the 1890s, it’s only in the past decade that immunotherapy has really taken off. Most famously, President Jimmy Carter was declared cancer-free in 2016 after immunotherapy was used to help treat a brain tumor. The basic principle is the same as any other disease the immune system deals with. The body’s defense mechanisms recognize the tumor as an invader and attack it, neutralizing the threat. The challenge lies in getting the immune system to see the tumor as a harmful, unwanted presence. It’s possible to do that by training the body’s immune system to recognize certain molecules in the tumor’s makeup.

A cancer vaccine would be the next big step for immunotherapy. While there are vaccines for cancers that are caused by an underlying infection — the HPV vaccine is probably the best-known example — vaccines meant to target non-infectious tumors are trickier. Some are in clinical trials to deal with specific types of cancer, but none are yet approved in the United States.

Based on researchers’ current knowledge, a cancer vaccine would require focusing on specific genetic alterations in tumors, which create molecules that the immune system can then target and attack if a tumor ever does pop up. The problem is that those alterations are different in every person, so each vaccine would have to be specifically designed and created for every individual patient. That would be expensive, likely prohibitively so.

The bad news, according to scientists at the cancer genetics research company Foundation Medicine and authors of the study, is that there doesn’t appear to be any way around that problem that would allow for the creation of a universal vaccine. They looked at the genomes of more than 60,000 different tumors to find any molecules that were the consistent result of these genetic alterations and that the immune systems could then go after. Even in the best-case scenario, the most common targets the researchers found would only be useful for about 0.3 percent of the population.

So a universal vaccine doesn’t appear to be possible, at least based on what we know right now. The researchers did point out that they only looked at the specifically cancer-causing parts of the tumor genomes, and it’s possible a currently unknown genetic alteration could be common enough to make a universal vaccine more feasible.

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Henry Sapiecha

Prostate Cancer in pics & information.See what it is & how it can be treated here.

Sunday, July 10th, 2016

What Is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer develops in a man’s prostate, the walnut-sized gland just below the bladder that produces some of the fluid in semen. It’s the most common cancer in men after skin cancer. Prostate cancer often grows very slowly and may not cause significant harm. But some types are more aggressive and can spread quickly without treatment.

prostate_diagram image www.newcures.info

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Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

In the early stages, men may have no symptoms. Later, symptoms can include:

  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Difficulty starting or stopping urination
  • Weak or interrupted urinary stream
  • Painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation
  • Blood in urine or semen

Advanced cancer can cause deep pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs.

man_in_hallway image www.newcures.info

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Enlarged Prostate or Prostate Cancer?

The prostate can grow larger as men age, sometimes pressing on the bladder or urethra and causing symptoms similar to prostate cancer. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It’s not cancer and can be treated if symptoms become bothersome. A third problem that can cause urinary symptoms is prostatitis. This inflammation or infection may also cause a fever and in many cases is treated with medication.

englarged_prostate image www.newcures.info

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Risk Factors You Can’t Control

Growing older is the greatest risk factor for prostate cancer, particularly after age 50. After 70, studies suggest that most men have some form of prostate cancer, though there may be no outward symptoms. Family history increases a man’s risk: having a father or brother with prostate cancer doubles the risk. African-Americans are at high risk and have the highest rate of prostate cancer in the world.

men_golfing image www.newcures.info

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Risk Factors You Can Control

Diet seems to play a role in the development of prostate cancer, which is much more common in countries where meat and high-fat dairy are mainstays. The reason for this link is unclear. Dietary fat, particularly animal fat from red meat, may boost male hormone levels. And this may fuel the growth of cancerous prostate cells. A diet too low in fruits and vegetables may also play a role.

slice_of_pizza image www.newcures.info

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Myths About Prostate Cancer

Here are some things that will not cause prostate cancer: Too much sex, a vasectomy, and masturbation. If you have an enlarged prostate (BPH), that does not mean you are at greater risk of developing prostate cancer. Researchers are still studying whether alcohol use, STDs, or prostatitis play a role in the development of prostate cancer.

couple_in_covertible image www.newcures.info

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Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early?

Screening tests are available to find prostate cancer early, but government guidelines don’t call for routine testing in men at any age. The tests may find cancers that are so slow-growing that medical treatments would offer no benefit. And the treatments themselves can have serious side effects. The American Cancer Society advises men to talk with a doctor about screening tests, beginning at:

  • 50 for average-risk men who expect to live at least 10 more years.
  • 45 for men at high risk. This includes African-Americans and those with a father, brother, or son diagnosed before age 65.
  • 40 for men with more than one first-degree relative diagnosed at an early age.

man_on_exam_table image www.newcures.info

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Screening: DRE and PSA

Your doctor may initially do a digital rectal exam (DRE) to feel for bumps or hard spots on the prostate. After a discussion with your doctor, a blood test can be used to measure prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein produced by prostate cells. An elevated level may indicate a higher chance that you have cancer, but you can have a high level and still be cancer-free. It is also possible to have a normal PSA and have prostate cancer.

dre_prostate_exam image www.newcures.info

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PSA Test Results

A normal PSA level is considered to be under 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood, while a PSA above 10 suggests a high risk of cancer. But there are many exceptions:

  • Men can have prostate cancer with a PSA less than 4.
  • A prostate that is inflamed (prostatitis) or enlarged (BPH) can boost PSA levels, yet further testing may show no evidence of cancer.
  • Some BPH drugs can lower PSA levels, despite the presence of prostate cancer, called a false negative.

If either a PSA or DRE test are abnormal, your doctor will order other tests.

blood_sample image www.newcures.info

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Prostate Cancer Biopsy

If a physical exam or PSA test suggests a problem, your doctor may recommend a biopsy. A needle is inserted either through the rectum wall or the skin between the rectum and scrotum. Multiple small tissue samples are removed and examined under a microscope. A biopsy is the best way to detect cancer and predict whether it is slow-growing or aggressive.

prostate_biopsy image www.newcures.info

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Biopsy and Gleason Score

A pathologist looks for cell abnormalities and “grades” the tissue sample from 1 to 5. The sum of two Gleason grades is the Gleason score. These scores help determine the chances of the cancer spreading. They range from  2, less aggressive, to 10, a very aggressive cancer. Gleason scores helps guide the type of treatment your doctor will recommend.

gleason_prostate-cancer_diagram image www.newcures.info

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Prostate Cancer Imaging

Some men may need additional tests to see if the cancer has spread beyond the prostate. These can include ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI scan (seen here). A radionuclide bone scan traces an injection of low-level radioactive material to help detect cancer that has spread to the bone.

In the MRI scan shown here, the tumor is the green, kidney-shaped mass in the center, next to the prostate gland (in pink).

mri_of_prostate_cancer image www.newcures.info

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Prostate Cancer Staging

Staging is used to describe how far prostate cancer has spread (metastasized) and to help determine the best treatment.

  • Stage I: Cancer is small and still within the prostate.
  • Stage II: Cancer is more advanced, but still confined to the prostate.
  • Stage III: Cancer has spread to the outer part of the prostate and nearby seminal vesicles.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes, nearby organs or tissues such as the bladder or rectum, or distant organs such as bones or lungs.

stages_of_prostate_cancer image www.newcures.info

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Prostate Cancer Survival Rates

The good news about prostate cancer is that it usually grows slowly. And 9 out of 10 cases are found in the early stages. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rate is 100% for men with disease confined to the prostate or nearby tissues, and many men live much longer. When the disease has spread to distant areas, that figure drops to 28%. But these numbers are based on men diagnosed at least 5 years ago. The outlook may be better for men diagnosed and treated today.

grandfather_and_grandson image www.newcures.info

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Treatment: Watchful Waiting

With low-risk cancer, one option is to watch and wait. This is determined by your biopsy, PSA test, and Gleason scores. Your doctor will order periodic testing. Other treatments — with the risk of sexual or urinary problems — may not be necessary. Some men who are older or have serious health conditions may not need treatment. However, more aggressive treatment is usually recommended for younger men or those with more aggressive disease.

doctor_discussing_prostate_exam_results image www.newcures.info

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Treatment: Radiation Therapy

External beam radiation to kill cancer cells can be used as a first treatment or after prostate cancer surgery. It can also help relieve bone pain from the spread of cancer. In brachytherapy, tiny radioactive pellets about the size of a grain of rice are inserted into the prostate. Both methods can impair erectile function. Fatigue, urinary problems, and diarrhea are other possible side effects.

ct_scan_of_pelvis image www.newcures.info

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Treatment: Surgery

Removing the prostate, or radical prostatectomy, is used to eliminate the cancer when it is confined to the prostate. New techniques use smaller incisions and seek to avoid damaging nearby nerves. If lymph nodes are also cancerous, prostatectomy may not be the best option. Surgery may impair urinary and sexual function, but both can improve over time.

prostate_cancer_surgery image www.newcures.info

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Treatment: Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy may shrink or slow the growth of cancer, but unless it is used with another therapy it will not eliminate the cancer. Drugs or hormones block or stop the production of testosterone and other male hormones, called androgens. Side effects can include hot flashes, growth of breast tissue, weight gain, and impotence.

syringe_with_droplet image www.newcures.info

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Treatment: Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells throughout the body, including those outside the prostate, so it is used to treat more advanced cancer and cancer that did not respond to hormone therapy.  Treatment is usually intravenous and is given in cycles lasting 3-6 months. Because the chemotherapy kills other fast-growing cells in the body, you may have hair loss and mouth sores. Other side effects include nausea, vomiting,  and fatigue.

chemotherapy_treatment image www.newcures.info

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Treatment: Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy freezes and kills cancerous cells within the prostate (like the highly magnified cells shown here.) It is not as widely used because little is known about its long-term effectiveness. It’s less invasive than surgery, with a shorter recovery time. Because the freezing damages nerves, as many as 80% of men become impotent after cryosurgery. There can be temporary pain and burning sensations in the bladder and bowel.

prostate_cancer_cells image www.newcures.info

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Treatment: Prostate Cancer Vaccine

This vaccine is designed to treat, not prevent, prostate cancer by spurring your body’s immune system to attack prostate cancer cells. Immune cells are removed from your blood, activated to fight cancer, and infused back into the blood. Three cycles occur in one month. It’s used for advanced prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone therapy. Mild side effects can occur such as fatigue, nausea, and fever.

prostate_cancer_vaccine image www.newcures.info

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Hope for Advanced Cancer

Your doctor will continue to monitor your PSA levels and may perform other tests after treatment for prostate cancer. If it recurs or spreads to other parts of the body, additional treatment may be recommended. Lifestyle choices may matter, too. One study found that prostate cancer survivors who exercised regularly had a lower risk of dying, for example.

grandfather_walking_with_grandson_bushland image www.newcures.info

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Coping With Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common side effect of prostate cancer treatments. Generally, erectile function improves within two years after surgery. Improvement may be better for younger men than for those over 70. You also may benefit from ED medications. Other treatments, such as injection therapy and vacuum devices, may help.

couple_holding_hands image www.newcures.info (2)

www.club-libido.com

www.clublibido.com.au

www.mylove-au.com

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Food for Health

A cancer-conscious diet may be the best choice for survivors who want to bolster their health and those hoping to lower their risk. That means:

  • Five or more fruits and veggies a day
  • Whole grains instead of white flour or white rice
  • Limit high-fat meat
  • Limit or eliminate processed meat (hot dogs, cold cuts, bacon)
  • Limit alcohol to 1-2 drinks per day (if you drink)

Foods high in folate may have some action against prostate cancer (such as spinach, orange juice, lentils). Studies found mixed results on lycopene, an antioxidant found in tomatoes.

www.foodpassions.net

lentils_and_spinach_food image www.newcures.info

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Supplements: Buyer Beware

Be wary of supplements that are marketed to prevent prostate cancer. Some herbal substances can interfere with PSA levels. A 10-year study showed an increase in the risk of cancer for men who took folic acid supplements. A 5-year study of selenium and vitamin E did not show a decreased risk of prostate cancer. Be sure to tell your doctor if you are taking vitamins or supplements.

supplement_pills image www.newcures.info

www.druglinks.info

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ASD

Henry Sapiecha

 

MEASLES VIRUS MASSIVE DOSE KILLS OFF CANCERS SAYS MAYO CLINIC IN THIS VIDEO

Thursday, September 18th, 2014

Published on May 14, 2014

A medical first — a woman with an incurable form of cancer has had all signs of living cancer cells eradicated from her body for at least 6 months. What’s more, it was accomplished in a single treatment. And the magic potion — was the measles virus.

Published on May 14, 2014

A medical first — a woman with an incurable form of cancer has had all signs of living cancer cells eradicated from her body for at least 6 months. What’s more, it was accomplished in a single treatment. And the magic potion — was the measles virus.

Henry Sapiecha

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Single injection reverses type 2 diabetes symptoms in mice without side effects as shown in this video

Thursday, August 14th, 2014

Researchers at the Salk Institute have found that the FGF1 protein shows promise for the development of safer, more effective diabetes drugs

U.S. researchers have developed a nonsurgical technique to repair severed nerves in minutes instead of months Image www.newcures.info

There are numerous research efforts underway to develop new treatments and improve the lives of people suffering type 2 diabetes, whose ranks have increased dramatically in recent decades due in large part to the so-called obesity epidemic. A new generation of safer and more effective diabetes drugs could be in the offing with researchers at the Salk Institute discovering that when mice with diet-induced diabetes were given a single injection of a protein, their blood sugar levels were restored to a healthy range for more than two days.

Although type 2 diabetes can sometimes be managed through a healthy diet and regular exercise in the initial stages, tablets that boost the body’s production of insulin are generally prescribed as the disease progresses. Such tablets can have side effects, including nausea and diarrhea, and aren’t suitable for everyone, such as pregnant women and those with severe liver, kidney or heart disease. They can also cause blood glucose levels to drop too low, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia.

Now Salk researchers have found that injecting obese mice with the equivalent of type 2 diabetes in humans with a single dose of protein FGF1 quickly restored their blood glucose levels to normal levels where they remained for more than two days. Importantly, even when given high doses, the mice suffered none of the side effects common to most current diabetes treatments, such as weight gain or heart and liver problems.

“With FGF1, we really haven’t seen hypoglycemia or other common side effects,” says Salk postdoctoral research fellow Jae Myoung Suh. “It may be that FGF1 leads to a more ‘normal’ type of response compared to other drugs because it metabolizes quickly in the body and targets certain cell types.”

Like the mechanism of insulin resistance that causes diabetes, the team says the mechanism responsible for FGF1 normalizing blood sugar levels isn’t fully understood. But despite FGF1 being a growth factor, the team found that its ability to stimulate growth was independent of its effects on blood glucose levels, thereby increasing the chances of it being used to develop safer, more effective diabetes drugs.

“We want to move this to people by developing a new generation of FGF1 variants that solely affect glucose and not cell growth,” says says Ronald M. Evans, director of Salk’s Gene Expression Laboratory. “If we can find the perfect variation, I think we will have on our hands a very new, very effective tool for glucose control.”

Evans and his team are planning to conduct human trials of FGF1, but admit fine-tuning the protein into a therapeutic drug will take time.

The team’s paper is published in the journal Nature and a video detailing the discovery can be viewed below.

Source: Salk Institute

FLU SHOTS FOR PREGNANT MOTHERS HELP IN WOMB BABIES

Sunday, October 10th, 2010

Mother get flu shots and babies reap benefits


Posted 2010/10/04 at 7:22 pm EDT

CHICAGO, Oct. 4, 2010 (Reuters) — Newborn babies whose mothers got a flu shot while pregnant are less likely to get the flu or to be admitted to the hospital with a respiratory illness in the first six months of life, U.S. researchers said on Monday.


During most flu seasons, babies under six months tend to have fewer cases of flu-like illnesses than those who are 6 to 12 months old, most likely because they are protected by their mothers’ natural antibodies.

But in severe flu seasons, such as the 2009 swine flu pandemic, these youngest children, who are too young to get flu shots themselves, are more likely to be hospitalized and die from flu than older babies.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has for years recommended that pregnant women be vaccinated against seasonal flu, but the study adds to other research showing that newborn babies benefit, too.

Researcher Angelia Eick, formerly of Johns Hopkins in Baltimore and now of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center in Silver Spring, Maryland, wanted to see if giving pregnant women flu shots could increase protection for babies under 6 months old.

Eick and colleagues studied children on Navajo and White Mountain Apache Indian reservations. In these communities, children are more prone to severe respiratory infections than those in the general population.

The team studied 1,160 mother-infant pairs over three flu seasons. The mothers and babies gave blood samples before and after the flu season and they were monitored for flu symptoms.

In the flu season following the child’s birth, babies whose mother had been vaccinated were 41 percent less likely to have a lab-confirmed flu infection and 39 percent less likely to be hospitalized for a flu-like illness.

They also found babies whose mothers had been vaccinated had higher levels of flu antibodies at birth and at 2 to 3 months of age compared with babies whose mothers did not get a flu shot.

“Although influenza vaccination is recommended for pregnant women to reduce their risk of influenza complications, these findings provide support for the added benefit of protecting infants from influenza virus infection up to six months,” Eick and colleagues wrote in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

The findings are particularly relevant with the 2009 H1N1 flu virus, which hit pregnant women and young babies especially hard, the team wrote.

Current flu vaccines protect against the H1N1 virus as well as two other strains of the flu.

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha

DEADLIEST SCORPION POISON FIGHTS BRAIN CANCERS

Monday, August 16th, 2010

Deathstalker Scorpion Venom

Could Improve Gene Therapy

for Brain Cancer

Science (Aug. 11, 2010) — An ingredient in the venom of the “deathstalker” scorpion could help gene therapy become an effective treatment for brain cancer, scientists are reporting. The substance allows therapeutic genes — genes that treat disease — to reach more brain cancer cells than current approaches, according to the study in ACS Nano.


Miqin Zhang and colleagues note that gene therapy — the delivery of therapeutic genes into diseased cells — shows promise for fighting glioma, the most common and most serious form of brain cancer. But difficulties in getting genes to enter cancer cells and concerns over the safety and potential side effects of substances used to transport these genes have kept the approach from helping patients.

The scientists describe a new approach that could solve these problems. Key ingredients of their gene-delivery system are chlorotoxin, the substance in deathstalker scorpion venom that can slow the spread of brain cancer, and nanoparticles of iron oxide. Each nanoparticle is about 1/50,000th the width of a human hair. In tests on lab mice, the scientists demonstrated that their venom-based nanoparticles can induce nearly twice the amount of gene expression in brain cancer cells as nanoparticles that do not contain the venom ingredient. “These results indicate that this targeted gene delivery system may potentially improve treatment outcome of gene therapy for glioma and other deadly cancers,” the article notes.

Sourced & published by Henry Sapiecha

SKIN CANCERS CURED AND PREVENTED WITH THIS VACCINE

Thursday, May 27th, 2010

Vaccine Hope for Skin Cancer Sufferers

The skin

The skin:

  • protects us from injury
  • cools us when we get too hot
  • prevents us from becoming dehydrated.

The skin has two main layers.

  • Epidermis: The top or outer layer.

Contains three different kinds of cells:

    1. basal cells
    2. squamous cells
    3. melanocytes – produce a dark pigment called melanin, the substance that gives skin its colour.
  • Dermis: The layer underneath the epidermis.

Contains the roots of hairs, glands that make sweat, blood and lymph vessels and nerves.

Diagram of the skin layer

Skin cancer

Skin cancer develops when a cell in the skin goes through a series of changes that make it a cancer cell.

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the main factor that causes skin cancer cells to become cancer cells.

Skin cancers are named after the type of cell they start from. These are:

  • basal cell cancer
  • squamous cell cancer
  • melanoma.
Melanoma is the least common type of cancer, but it is the most serious type. It can be successfully treated if caught early.

Science (May 27, 2010) — Nottingham scientists have been given the green light to test a vaccine which they hope could reverse, and even cure malignant melanoma, the most deadly type of skin cancer.

Scancell Holdings plc, led by Professor Lindy Durrant of the University’s Division of Clinical Oncology within the School of Molecular Medical Sciences, believes the new vaccine, which targets tumour cells without damaging healthy tissue, could be successful in treating patients with malignant melanoma.

Incidences of malignant melanoma have more than quadrupled over the past 30 years and in the last 25 years rates of malignant melanoma have risen faster than for any other cancer. It is now the most common cancer in younger adults aged 15 to 34, which may be linked to risky associated behaviour such as exposure to the sun on foreign beach holidays and the use of tanning booths. Every year, most of the 2,000 skin cancer deaths result from malignant melanoma.

Professor Durrant said: “Up until now, early diagnosis has been a crucial factor in the successful treatment of this disease. In the early stages it can be cured by completely removing the skin melanoma by surgery. However, in cases where it has not been picked up until further down the line, we have found that chemotherapy and radiotherapy simply do not work, although new compounds are being tested.

“It is still at a very early stage and impossible to predict the outcome of the clinical trial but if our results from the lab are replicated in patients I think we have a good chance of dramatically improving the chances of successful treatment — we are hoping that the vaccine will cure between 10 and 20 per cent of patients with malignant melanoma.”

Testing for the new SCIB1 vaccine has been given approval by the Gene Therapy Advisory Committee and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency and clinical trials are due to start shortly at Nottingham City Hospital and centres in Manchester and Newcastle.

It will initially be given to patients who are suffering from advanced malignant melanoma which has spread to other parts of the body.

The new vaccine works by activating the body’s own natural defence systems — it contains DNA and genetic material from tumours meaning it ‘switches’ on the specific immune cells that target melanoma. This means that it targets only the cancer and not the surrounding healthy tissue.

The team of scientists believe that, in principle, new vaccines based upon the same principle could also be used to target other types of cancer tumours, such as breast and prostate.

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 28th May 2010

SWINE FLU VIRUS INVENTED & NOW AVAILABLE FREE IN AUSTRALIA

Friday, March 12th, 2010

Myanmar company produces Swine flu vaccine

FAME Pharmaceutical, a local company based in Yangon, has successfully produced a A(H1N1) vaccine, Flower News reported on March 2.

The medicine was produced using Shikimic acid extracted from the Chinese star anise. The acid helps prevent the spread of the A(H1N1) virus, said U Tin Maung Aye, a director of Fame Pharmaceutical.

Roche, an international pharmaceutical company, produces the Tamiflu vaccine based on the Oseltamivir compound derived from the Chinese star anise.

“The [production] method will be different. But we are producing a similar formula to Tamiflu. It can be used even before A(H1N1) symptoms are diagnosed as a preventative measure,” U Tin Maung Aye said.

FREE SWINE FLU SHOTS FOR EVERYONE IN AUSTRALIA

Sunday, October 18th, 2009

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine

Protect yourself, protect your community

0431_swine_65x65A new FREE vaccine to protect Australians from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus is ready. Panvax® H1N1 vaccine was registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration on 18 September 2009.
There is clear evidence of serious or fatal health complications for some people who catch this flu. It is a new strain of flu that spreads easily from person to person, and experience in other countries shows that this is not just a winter flu – it could come back during spring and summer.

Vaccination is the safest response for the community, particularly as large numbers of people continue to be infected, and some are suffering serious health complications. By getting vaccinated you can protect yourself and help stop this flu spreading.

How a vaccine works

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Panvax® H1N1 Vaccine contains extracts of protein from the new flu strain. Once you get vaccinated, proteins prompt your body to produce antibodies to protect you from the virus.
Protection after vaccination varies from person to person, but people generally start producing the antibodies that provide protection two weeks after the vaccination. Protection is expected to last for at least one year.

This vaccine does not contain live virus and cannot give you influenza.

People who should get immediate vaccination

All people can get vaccinated but some people are more at risk of severe outcomes if they catch this flu. Vaccination is strongly recommended for:

  • Pregnant women
  • Parents and guardians of infants up to six months old
  • People with underlying chronic conditions, including:
    • heart disease;
    • asthma and other lung diseases;
    • cancer;
    • diabetes;
    • kidney disease;
    • neurological disease;
    • other chronic conditions (talk to your GP)
  • People who are severely obese
  • Indigenous Australians
  • Frontline health workers
  • Community care workers

Where do I get vaccinated? How do I get this vaccine?

Vaccinations will be available from 30 September. Vaccination will be available from a range of locations, including GP offices, vaccination clinics, hospitals and health centres. To check vaccination location in your State or Territory, go to:

Health department websites and phone numbers

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WA: call 1800 186 815 or visit http://www.health.wa.gov.au/swine_flu/home/
SA: call 1800 022 222 or visit www.flu.sa.gov.au
VIC: call: 1300 882 008 or visit www.humanswineflu.health.vic.gov.au
TAS: 1800 358 362 (1800 FLU DOC) or visit www.pandemic.tas.gov.au
ACT: call 02 6205 2300 or visit www.health.act.gov.au/flupandemic
NSW: visit www.emergency.health.nsw.gov.au/swineflu/vaccination/index.asp, or call 180 2007 for your local Public Health Unit contact
QLD: 13HEALTH (13 43 25 84) or vist www.health.qld.gov.au/swineflu/html/vacc.asp
NT: call 08 8922 8044 or visit www.swinefluvax.nt.gov.au

Sourced and published by Henry Sapiecha 18th October 2009

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